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If one must fix their clothing, i.e. fold their collar, are they allowed to do so on Shabbath? Does it break any melachot?

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According to an article on AskTheRav, folding garments, whether it is a collar or not, improves the piece of clothing and hence it is forbidden on Shabbos. However:

One may fold old garments, not on the original fold line. Some are stringent with this too.

The Mishnah in Shabbos says (see also the linked Gemara):

One may fold the garments after removing them even four or five times, and one may make the beds from Shabbat evening in preparation for Shabbat day, but not from Shabbat in preparation for the conclusion of Shabbat, since one may not perform an action on Shabbat that is preparation for a weekday.

The Bartenura on this Mishnah explains it as follows:

מקפלין את הכלים – clothes that are spread out, one folds them even four and five times in order to return to wear them on that same day and they did not teach other than for one person.

A collar that is not in place anymore, can be viewed as "spread out". As I see from this Bartenura and the Mishnah, it is allowed to fold the collar into place.

Similary, the Shulchan Aruch in Orach Chayim 302:3 builds on this Mishnah and says:

It is permitted to fold clothes on Shabbos that are to be worn that Shabbos. This is when (one) person folds them, they are new clothes that have not yet been laundered, are white, and he does not have other clothes to wear. If one of these conditions is omitted, it is forbidden (to fold). There is an opinion that holds that if folded against its creases it is permitted unconditionally, and his opinion seem to be correct.

The Rambam, however, seems to disagree, and says (Mishneh Torah; Hilchos Shabbos 22:22):

It is forbidden to fix the sleeves of garments, adjusting them to form layers of cuffs

See also: Folding Garments on Shabbat, Folding garments, Inserting Collar Stays on Shabbos. See also the Aruch HaShulchan in Orach Chayim 302:12.

Folding clothes can form an issue on Shabbos, especially if the folding act makes improvements on the clothing:

Folding them prevents any potential wrinkling and enhances the appearance of the garment, which makes it resemble makeh bepatish

However, to me, it seems that you do not fold your collar in order to prevent it from wrinkling and to enhance the appearance of the garment. The last might be true, but if you fold it a slightly different than normal, that would be no problem.

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