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BH

I've seen

https://www.halachipedia.com/index.php?title=Doing_Activities_Before_Davening

What are the general rules regarding doing activities (such as eating or checking email) before mitzvot (such as tefillin or prayer)? [too broad]

https://dinonline.org/2015/07/20/eating-before-tefillin/ --says yes in answer but differentiates in comments

tha last link references mishnah berurah 70:20 which says:

אסור לכו"ע לאכול קודם שמקיים מצות תפילין דזמנו כל היום וגם לפי מה שכתב הפמ"ג בסימן פ"ט אסור לו אז לאכול קודם שמתפלל תפלת המנחה ע"כ כשיגיע חצי שעה שאחר חצות יתפלל תפלת המנחה ואח"כ יאכל ועיין בספר מחנה ישראל בפ"ז:

not only no eating before tefillin, but also b4 mincha

in the comments to that last link it said thats only a kevius seuda

Also there's Source for not eating before doing a Mitzvah but the answer there mentions not eating erev shabbos, which is permitted if its not a big meal, is there room to say the same here?

the question is, are there any other sources that discuss eating bread b4 tefillin in particular (if one davened shacharis for whatever reason without them, or if one was involved in community matters and was exempt from shacharis, or if one purposefully missed the time for shacharis and did Teshuva in the afternoon etc.)?

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As you’ve mentioned, The Chafetz Chaim in Machaneh Yisroel 7:3-4 says that it would be prohibited to eat before tefillin, regardless if he davened already.

This is mentioned, and brought down in the MB 70:20

ודע דאם נמשך זמן עסקו בצרכי צבור עד לאחר חצות שאז פטור לכו"ע אף מן התפלה מ"מ אסור לכו"ע לאכול קודם שמקיים מצות תפילין דזמנו כל היום

While these cases are instances where the person hasn’t davened yet either, in the Shaare Tzion 66:64 he says the same thing in a case where a person already davened as well

The question is also discussed by contemporary poskim (R’ Elyashiv, RSZ, R’ Wosner) in a situation if someone is sick and must eat on Tisha B’av if they can eat before putting on tefillin by Mincha.

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