According to Jastrow, the word chaveir refers, sometimes to "associate, friend, partner (in sacrifices); colleague, fellow-student; fellow-being; of the same kind(also of things)" (via Sefaria).

Because of this range of possibilities, the talmudic use of "chaveir" might be a statement of friendship or simple generic similarity.

Are there uses of the word in the gemara which indicate "friend, to the exclusion of other people" or at least "someone known and specifically NOT just anyone else in a category"?

I'm trying to understand the phrase in Masechet Avodah Zara (43a) "שלו ומשל חברו" his and his friend's and seeing if it can be exclusionary -- that is, his and his actual/known friend's as opposed to "his and anyone else's".

Does anyone know of a use of chaveir in the gemara which points only to "friends"?

  • 1
    אָמַר רָבָא: הַיְינוּ דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי: אוֹ חַבְרוּתָא אוֹ מִיתוּתָא.
    – Dr. Shmuel
    Jul 10, 2022 at 17:26
  • by gemara do you mean mishna
    – Dr. Shmuel
    Jul 10, 2022 at 17:27
  • 1
    @Dr.Shmuel I'll take either one. The taanit quote is nice but one wonders if it could be read "companionship" (or "community") and not specific friends.
    – rosends
    Jul 10, 2022 at 19:53
  • אָמַר רָבָא הַיְינוּ דְּאָמְרִי אִינָשֵׁי אוֹ חַבְרָא כְּחַבְרֵי דְּאִיּוֹב אוֹ מִיתוּתָא Bava Basra 16B. Although the Gemara uses the word רֵעֵי אִיּוֹב as well in the same context
    – Chatzkel
    Jul 12, 2022 at 2:15


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