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Some laws concerning other people are understood to be observed also to non Jewish persons; e.g. that is is forbidden to murder.

Others have been interpreted to be valid only towards Jews; e.g. leaning out money for interest.

What are the criteria in halacha (Rabbinic after the end of the 2nd Temple until medieval tradition) to discern it?


After a while of study, parting from a closely related post on a particular commandment

Does ‘Love Your Neighbor As Yourself’ apply only to Jews?

that shows that there is no full consent on the interpretation, it seems more appropriate to focus on different rabbis and schools:

What opinions have been pronounced in halacha (Rabbinic after the end of the 2nd Temple until late medieval tradition) on this topic?

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    Usually the verse says something like "Don't X to your fellow" instead of just "Don't X" if it means only Jews. (Everything has exceptions.)
    – Double AA
    Jul 3 at 12:39
  • @DoubleAA However, if you're looking at practical Rabbinic law, there are laws that Scripture directs at "your fellow," that the Sages practically extend to all humans, e.g. "You shall not stand idly by ..." (Lev. 19:16).
    – Isaac Moses
    Jul 3 at 13:11
  • A classic example of this is lashon hara- it is permitted al pi halacha to speak about non-Jews, though the Chofetz Chaim says this is damaging for one's middot. Jul 3 at 14:11
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  • As a rule of thumb, all of the commandments apply exclusively to the Jews unless specified otherwise. Rabbis need a special reason to apply certain Mitzvahs to gentiles, even murder. Unlike Christianity, for example, a commandment is not only a moral code - it is translated into a very specific punishment. So it is not trivial that a Jew who killed a gentile is liable for capital punishment, even if he did something morally wrong.
    – Al Berko
    Jul 3 at 17:07

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