How does the Torah and Talmud view (viking and non viking) runes?
The Torah and Hazal make no explicit reference to the runic alphabets. It would be exceedingly difficult to argue that they had any direct knowledge of them. The earliest possible reference one might reasonably expect to find would be in the later medieval literature of Ashkenaz.
Letters written on swords and such. Stones with a letters. What is the view on them?
There is no prohibition against writing on stones or weapons. If there were some talismanic/occultic significance intended then there may be an issue. In such instances the issue would stem from the intent and purpose of the writing not from the writing in and of itself. The precise use case in each instance would need to be ascertained before any kind of halakhic analysis could be made.