I can't speak for Modern Hebrew, but Biblically and Talmudically? Sure.
After finishing the Havdalah ceremony to end the Sabbath, everyone sings a song called Eliyahu HaNavi, Eliyahu HaTishbi, Eliyahu HaGil'adi.
Elijah the Gil'adite.
Jephtha is also called "the Gil'adite" (Judges 11:1).
There's a Psalm to "Eitan the Ezrachite", though there are some interpretations that one may not be a demonym.
One of Job's "pals" is "the Teiman-ite."
The Talmudic sage Hillel was originally known as "Hillel ha-Bavli", the Babylonian. https://www.sefaria.org/Pesachim.66a.3?lang=bi
The genitive is also found, e.g. in Chapter One of Avot: *Yosei son of Yochanan, man of Jerusalem."