I recall reading that their is a pesak/teshuvah/report by a major posek, perhaps an early "later" Acharon, (Rabbi Akiva Eiger zt"l) which noted that at least elementary arithmatic or mathematics was traditionally taught in cheder. I did not make note of the makor, however. Is anyone able to provide the source?
Sefer Sheeris HaNachala mentions in the name of the Sefer HaItim that Rav Hai Gaon said that it is permitted to teach children Arabic and mathematics in order to assist them in learning Torah.
Not sure these quotes exactly answer your question, however they do show some of the major times when math was taught and introduced into Jewish schools. The last one seems particularly on topic.
It was published in 1906, and reads: "On the 31st March 1805 members of the High German Jewish community in Altona formed an association with the purpose of establishing a school for Jewish boys, with lessons in religion, Hebrew, arithmetic and writing.
The subjects of instruction were in the first place the religious literature, the Bible and the Talmud. But the studies were so arranged that by the nature of the talmudic discussions they embraced all known sciences: natural history, anatomy, medicine, geometry, astronomy and foreign languages.
Yaskil Avdi (vol. 1 Orah Haim siman 7) permits it (he was asked by Rabbi Masliah Mazuz). As well as Sis Eliezer (vol. 9 siman 15). See the aforementioned Yabia Omer 7:21.
I found in Yalkut Yosef vol. 2 pg. 255
אין לערוך הרצאות של חול בבית הכנסת, וכל שכן לערוך שם קונצרטים וכיוצא בזה. אלא אם כן ההרצאה כוללת גם דברי חיזוק ועידוד לשמירת התורה והמצוות (כגון עריכת ''סמינרים'' לקרב רחוקים לצור מחצבתם).
He prohibits lectures about non-Torah things in a Shul except for Kiruv and Hizuk.