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When returning the Torah to the Torah ark on Shabbat morning, our custom is to say Mizmor Ledavid (Ashkenaz, Nosah Sfard). On a regular day and on Yom Tov that is not Shabbat, we say LeDavid Mizmor. So why by Shabbat Mincha, although it is Shabbat, we still say Ledavid Mizmor and not Mizmor Ledavid that is said on Shabbat morning?

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Peri Megadim (Eshel Avraham), Orach Chaim 134:6 writes:

בשבת אומרים [תהילים] מזמור כ"ט הבו לה' כו', וביום טוב וחול מזמור כ"ד, עיין טור [סימן] רפ"ד וב"ח [שם ד"ה ונוהגין] ואליה רבה [כאן] אות ד' דבשבת נתנה תורה, יע"ש. ואתי שפיר נמי דבמנחה בשבת אין אומרים רק מזמור כ"ד, דבשחרית נתנה תורה.

On Shabbat we recite Psalm 29, "Havu LaHashem...", and on Yom Tov/weekdays, Psalm 24; see Tur Orach Chaim 284 and Bach (ad loc.) and Elyah Rabbah Orach Chaim 134:4 that on Shabbat the Torah was given; see there. This works well, since on Mincha at Shabbat, we recite Psalm 24, since the Torah was given in the morning.

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  • I'll note it also works out nicely to say Psalm 24 on Rosh Hashana even on Shabbat since Psalm 24 is all about God's kingship.
    – Double AA
    Aug 17 '21 at 17:36
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    It's very very unlikely this is the original reason of course. More likely than anything on this page is just that Mincha was always done quicker with fewer extended Mi Sheberakhs and stuff like that, no Al Hakol or Ein Kamokha while taking the Torah out, etc., so this extra Psalm was simply never included. Only later when Psalm 24 caught on as an always thing did anyone go back and ask this question.
    – Double AA
    Aug 17 '21 at 17:56
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Tur (OC 284) writes:

ונוהגים לומר בספרד מזמור "הבו לה' בני אלים" כשמחזירין הספר, מפני שנאמר על מתן תורה, וגם ז' ברכות של שבת נתקנו כנגד שבעה קולות שנאמרו בו.‏
In Spain the custom is to recite [Psalm 29] when returning the Torah, for it is said about the giving of the Torah [which took place on Shabbat?] and the seven blessings of Shabbat are based on the seven "voices" in it.

Bach there comments:

משמע דדוקא בשבת דאיכא תרתי טעמי ועל כן אין אומרים אותו אלא בשעה שמחזיר הספר לפי שנאמר על מתן תורה והא דלא תקנו לומר אותו בשעת הוצאת ס"ת אלא דוקא קודם מוסף היינו לפי דאותן ז' ברכות שבמוסף הם באים בשביל שבת וכדאמרינן בפ' ת"ה (דף כט) הני שבע דשבתא כנגד מי כנגד שבע קולות שאמר דוד על המים במזמור הבו לה' בני אלים ע"כ אין אומרים אותו אלא בשעה שמחזיר הספר וסמוך למוסף‏
It seems that specifically on Shabbat that there are both of these reasons, and therefore we only recite [Psalm 29] when returning the Torah scroll for it is said about the giving of the Torah, and that which they didn't institute to say it when taking out the Torah scroll but rather just preceding Musaf is because those seven blessings of Musaf are coming because of Shabbat, like we see in [Brakhot 29a] "These seven [blessings] of Shabbat correspond to what? Corresponding to the seven “voices” that David said on the water in [Psalm 29]." Therefore we only recite it when returning the Torah scroll before Musaf. (my translation and emphasis)

He goes on to decry a custom that arose to recite it always when returning a Torah scroll. A later custom (cf. Mishna Berura 292:4) to recite Psalm 24 at most times seems to have since supplanted that custom, probably due to this critique, though the practice of reciting Psalm 29 at times which shouldn't warrant it commonly persists on Rosh Hashana that falls on Shabbat despite the upcoming Musaf then having 9 blessings sourced in that Gemara to a different set of verses.

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    Isn't the gemara in Berakhot 29a equal relevant to the seven blessings of the shabbat mincha amidah?
    – Joel K
    Aug 17 '21 at 17:15
  • @JoelK דאותן ז' ברכות שבמוסף הם באים בשביל שבת Bach clearly understand that Musaf is unique here. Whether he understands that the Gemara is only referring to Musaf (in parallel to its next line about Rosh Hashana) or he understands that we should recite this Psalm only once next to the greatest epitomization of Shabbat prayers (which is musaf since the very existence of the service is generated by Shabbat), I do not know.
    – Double AA
    Aug 17 '21 at 17:21
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    I hear the way you're reading Bach, but I'm not convinced it's מוכרח. Could be all he is saying is that the reason it's after leining and not before, is to have it adjacent to a shabbat amidah. I'm not sure how much weight I would attach to the fact that he describes this amidah as ז' ברכות שבמוסף. It happens to be true that these berachot of musaf are coming בשביל שבת, but maybe he believes that the same is true of the other amidot of shabbat.
    – Joel K
    Aug 17 '21 at 17:33
  • @JoelK how is taking out the Torah less adjacent to a shabbat amida? i probably wouldn't have said the bach's svara a priori but i do think he's saying it. it's not crazy to say the gemara in brachot is only talking about musaf btw. consider hebrewbooks.org/… ; the other prayers are 7 for incidental reasons (minimizing requests)
    – Double AA
    Aug 17 '21 at 17:37
  • It's interesting to compare the content of the middle Bracha in Shacharit and Mussaf of Shabbat; I would probably have suggested that it fits better with Shacharit. Aug 17 '21 at 17:39

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