Does HaShem punish someone in this world for not studying the Torah ?
The Talmud (Berachot 5a) states:
אמר רבא ואיתימא רב חסדא אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו יפשפש במעשיו שנאמר נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ה’ פשפש ולא מצא יתלה בבטול תורה שנאמר אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו ואם תלה ולא מצא בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם שנאמר כי את אשר יאהב ה’ יוכיח
Raba (some say, R. Hisda) says: If a man sees that painful sufferings visit him, let him examine his conduct. For it is said: Let us search and try our ways, and return unto the Lord. If he examines and finds nothing [objectionable], let him attribute it to the neglect of the study of the Torah. For it is said: Happy is the man whom Thou chastenest, O Lord, and teachest out of Thy law. If he did attribute it [thus], and still did not find [this to be the cause], let him be sure that these are chastenings of love. For it is said: For whom the Lord loveth He correcteth.
The Talmud also says that part of that punishment is being delivered to the Evil Inclination:
The Holy One, blessed be He, spoke to Israel: My children! I created the Evil Inclination, but I [also] created the Torah, as its antidote. If you occupy yourselves with the Torah, you will not be delivered into its hand… But if you do not occupy yourselves with the Torah, you will be delivered into its hand… If you will it, you can rule over it. [Kiddushin 30b]
See Shaarei Teshuvah Gate 3:14 which discusses the absence of doing the positive is a negative:
And they said, (Sifre Devarim, Ekev), “Just like the reward for Torah study is greater than [that for] all of the commandments in the Torah, so too is the punishment for wasting [time for] it greater than [that for] all of the sins.” And they said (Sanhedrin 99a), “‘Because he has despised the word of the Lord and has breached His commandment’ (Numbers 15:31) - is stated about anyone for whom it is possible to engage in Torah [study] and does not engage [in it].” And we have >already mentioned all of these to you in the Gate of the Torah (no longer extant).
Further to that in 3:16
And know that depending on the greatness of the commandment will the punishment be great for the one who prevents himself from doing it, even though he does not do an act in breaching it - as we find with the commandment of the Passover offering and the commandment of circumcision, which are positive commandments but have excision [as their punishment].