How many, and which, melachot of shabbos are explicitly mentioned in the Chumash?

For example, I know the Chumash mentions not making a fire; is this the only example of such or are there more which the Chumash states?

  • Some say making fire is not a melakha because it is mentioned separately
    – Double AA
    Jun 30, 2021 at 11:49
  • There are some examples in Tanakh but not Chumash. Are you interested in hearing those?
    – Aaron
    Jun 30, 2021 at 16:05
  • אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאפוּ אֵפוּ וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־תְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּשֵּׁלוּ, shemos 16:23, is a non-explicit mention.
    – Mordechai
    Jun 30, 2021 at 21:12
  • On the most basic level, I'd wager 'melacha' means any kind of work in exchange for money (or goods)
    – Ilja
    Jun 30, 2021 at 22:27

1 Answer 1


On the level of peshat, ploughing and harvesting are mentioned in Shemot 34:21.

Also, some derive the melachah of hotza'ah ("carrying") from Shemot 36:6 (see Shabbat 96b) or from Shemot 16:29 (see Eruvin 17b with Tosafot).

  • Even though it's in the question, since there is no source, and just for completeness, you may want to add havarah שמות ל"ה:ג: לֹא־תְבַעֲר֣וּ אֵ֔שׁ בְּכֹ֖ל מֹשְׁבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּי֖וֹם הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃ sefaria.org/Exodus.35.3 Jun 30, 2021 at 14:29
  • 3
    Also bundling (מעמר), as in וימצאו איש מקושש עצים.
    – Meir
    Jun 30, 2021 at 16:00

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