I found this image titled Spiritual hierarchy in Judaism and it seems possibly accurate, but there's so much packed in and I don't know enough to point out deficiencies. I love infographics, and it'd be nice if I could rely on this, so please give your input. For instance, the visual has this authoritative statement:
Statements made outside of Torah or after the disbandment of the Sanhedrins (Great Court) only exist as subjective opinion. (ie not binding from a Torah level)
The Oral law does not and could not contain anything not of a legal nature. Any portions of the Mishnah that are not legal is regarded as Agadah/Mussar
Looks like this thread asks for the general explanation that I would have, but the distinctions between the texts aren't clear, like between Mishneh Torah and Shulchan Aruch.
PS - this is my first post. Hello Mi Yodeya!
Edit: Sefaria has some cool visualizations like the Words Sunburst and this parallel sets chart that categorizes mitzvot mentioned in Sefer HaChinukh. I wonder what kind of structure would be able to properly visualize this wider understand of authorities and their spheres of influence.