As it was/is forbidden for the Israelites to charge usury/interest to a fellow Israelite, I began researching the banking practices of the Israelites in the Torah. That being said/written, interest is intricately intertwined with a bank becoming financially successful. Further researching to see how this is reconciled I came across a question on this website asking about interest loans, "Heter Iska", an article about a "Kosher Bank" (1990), and another article which highlighted how Jews do business without loans once again highlighting the Heter Iska. From my research, I can only find traces of all of this being done on a small scale or having a clientele that included non-Jews. My question is how exactly do Jewish-run banks make profits if their clientele is all Jewish? As always articles, commentaries, references, and personal insight are always welcomed. Todah Rabbah.