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During the 6 days of creation, many things are made and named (sky, grass, seeds, water, land, stars) but the sun and moon are referred to only as the lights/luminaries (Ber 1:16)

וַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶת־שְׁנֵ֥י הַמְּאֹרֹ֖ת הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים אֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַגָּדֹל֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַיּ֔וֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּא֤וֹר הַקָּטֹן֙ לְמֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת הַלַּ֔יְלָה וְאֵ֖ת הַכּוֹכָבִֽים

The terms for these two objects appear elsewhere in the chumash (Ber 15:12 and 37:9) but not during the creation account.

Is there a reason that they are not named at this point?

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  • I think it's the Meshech Chochmah? Could be someone else -- who suggests that Avraham coined the Hebrew word "shemesh", based on the Aramaic "shamash", to stress that the sun just serves the orders of a higher Being and is not worthy of being worshiped. – Shalom Apr 6 at 19:52
  • "מוֹנֶה מִסְפָּר לַכּוֹכָבִים לְכֻלָּם שֵׁמוֹת יִקְרָא׃" Psalms 147 - you can add that He did name stars – Al Berko Apr 8 at 12:17
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The sun and the moon were worshipped as deities, under those names. Just as the taninim were worshiped by other cultures and so are set up as creations, and playthings of God, the sun and moon were appointed by God in their roles to regulate the day, night, and seasons. It would not be appropriate to refer to Shemesh and Yaraech in roles of "memshelet hayom / halayla".

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  • This was my instinct too, but does any classical commentator say this? Why does the tannin get mentioned by name? – Double AA Apr 7 at 12:26
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First in general all these things are much more than the physical-temporal items that go by those names. At a recent question here we saw at Midrash Rashbi that the Etz haChaim is the Torah, which is the fruit of the Tzadik, per Prov. 11:30 (and as explained in Likutei Moharan II: Hosafot #5),

ל פְּרִי-צַדִּיק, עֵץ חַיִּים; וְלֹקֵחַ נְפָשׁוֹת חָכָם.
30 The tree of life is the fruit of the Tzadik; and the Chakham takes souls.

Not mentioned there, and to give another example, is that the Tzadik is also the RKIA, "firmament," as hinted in Daniel and commented on in the first few lines of the Zohar on P. Bereishit:

והמשכילים יזהירו כזהר הרקיע ומצדיקי הרבים כככבים לעולם ועד (דניאל יב ג)
"And they who are wise (mSKL) shall shine (yZHyRu) like the brightness (ZHR) of the firmament (RKIA), and they who turn many to righteousness like the stars for ever and ever" (Dan. 12:3)

The name of the book "Zohar" is from there BTW. But Tzadik being RKIA is stated more outright in Tikunei Zohar (Intro, daf 1a):

וכלהו פרחין מן רקיע, ודא צדיק חי עולמים דמניה פרחין נשמתין דצדיקיא ונהרין בסיהרא They [the souls of the tzadikim] all fly from the RKIA; and this is Tzadik Chai-Olamim (The Tzadik, Ever Living or Life of the Eons), as from him fly/blossom the souls of the tzadikim, and they shine in the moon (SYHRA)...

Now, for your question in particular, perhaps it's because the Torah comes to teach us many things through it; there's a lot of commentaries on the two מארת חסר such as being without Waw they are kind of cursed, i.e. male and female are rooted here, from RKIA; similarly we have לא טוב היות האדם לבדו. Maybe you will find more answers in the below, or someone can add/improve.

For instance I:20a

https://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%96%D7%94%D7%A8_%D7%A4%D7%A8%D7%A9%D7%AA_%D7%91%D7%A8%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%99%D7%AA

... ויעש אלהי"ם את שני המאורות הגדולים,
ויעש רבויא ותקונא דכלא כדקא יאות, את שני המאורות הגדולים, בקדמיתא בחבורא חדא, רזא דא שמא שלים כחדא יהו"ה אלהי"ם, אע"ג דלא איהו באתגליא אלא בארח סתים, הגדולים, דאתבריאו (נ"א דאתרביאו) בשמא דא כדא, לאתקרי בהו שמא דכלא מצפץ מצפץ, אלין שמהן עלאין דתליסר מכילן דרחמי, הגדולים, אלין אתרביאו וסלקין לעילא, בגין דאינון עלאין מרזא עלאה, וסלקין לתועלתא דעלמא, דאתקיימא בהון עלמין, כגוונא דא שני המאורות תרוייהו כחדא סליקו ברבותא חדא. לא אתיישב סיהרא לגבי שמשא, דא אכסיף מקמי דא, סיהרא אמרה (שיר א') איכה תרעה, שמשא אמרה (שם) איכה תרביץ בצהרים, שרגא זעירא אכדין צהיר בצהרים, (שם) שלמה אהיה כעוטיה, אכדין בכסופא, כדין אזעירת גרמה למהוי רישא לתתאי, דכתיב צאי לך בעקבי הצאן, אמר לה קב"ה זילי ואזעירי גרמך, ומתמן לית לה נהורא בר משמשא, דבקדמיתא הוו יתבי כחדא בשקולא, לבתר אזעירת גרמה בכל אינון דרגין דילה, אע"ג דאיהי רישא עלייהו, דהא לית אתתא ברבוייא בר בבעלה כחדא.

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Translation:Zohar/Genesis#Bereisheet_/_%D7%91%D6%B0%D6%BC%D7%A8%D6%B5%D7%90%D7%A9%D6%B4%D7%81%D7%99%D7%AA

"And Elohim made the two great luminaries" (Gen. 1:16).
"And...made", וַיַּעַשׂ, signifies the greatness and the full establishment of everything, as it should be. The phrase: "The two great luminaries" indicates that the two great luminaries, (which are Zeir Anpin and his Female principle) were united at first. This is the secret of the full name Yud Hei Vav Hei - Elohim, which although not openly revealed can be surmised. So the "two great luminaries" appear in a full name, even though the name Elohim shines only in a concealed way. The word "great" means that Zeir Anpin and his Female principle grew in greatness by this name as equals, so much so that they were called by the name that unites everything together, which is Mem-Tzadi-Pe-Tzadi Mem-Tzadi-Pe-Tzadi. Zeir Anpin received his greatness from the right one, his Female principle from the left one. In such a way, they are referred to as "the two great luminaries." These are the most supernal names that precede the thirteen attributes of Mercy. The names Mem-Tzadi-Pe- Tzadi Mem-Tzadi-Pe-Tzadi are called "great," because they became great and ascended, since they are supernal and derive from the secret of above. They benefit the world, as the worlds' existence depends on them. Similarly, the two luminaries that appear in the verse, which are Zeir Anpin and his Female principle, both rose as one, in one greatness.
The moon was not at ease with the sun because she felt embarrassed before it. The moon said to the sun: "Where do you feed your flock? Why do you make your flock to rest at noon?" (Shir Hashirim 1:7). This is as if to say: How can a tiny candle shine in the middle of the day? "Why should I be like one who cloaks himself?" (Ibid.) That is: how can I remain in shame? Then she lowered herself to be head of the lower beings, as it is written: "Go your way forth by the footsteps of the flock" (Ibid. 8). Thus, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to her, 'Go and diminish yourself.'
From then on, she had no light of her own. She had only the light she received from the sun. At first, they were united as one on the same level, but she later lowered herself from all of its grades. This means that it lost all her grades and emerged from the world of Atzilut. Although she is the head of the lower worlds of Briyah, Yetzirah and Asiyah, she is nevertheless considered to have lost all her grades, as in principle a woman has no significance unless she is together with her husband. ...

There's much more in Zohar and TZ and the other Sifrei Kodesh. For me sifrei Breslev and TZ are easiest to understand.

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One fairly direct answer is mentioned below: M"ART (cursed) is Lilith. Others:

  • Maybe because the moon is unique in having no light but from what she receives from the sun (whereas everything else is "provisioned"?)
  • Maybe in accord with the fourth ro'eh Moshe? (mentioned below) (who is the nameless author of the Hagadah?)
  • Maybe as Malkhuth "has nothing of itself" etc. and Malkhut is sometimes fourth, sometimes seventh; also the "Seventh day" is not mentioned in the parashah, as commented by Kisse Melekh in reish Tikkun 21)

Tikunei Zohar #44

תקונא ארבעין וארבע:

BRASYT contains TR"Y (two) and E"Sh (fire). Of this it's said, Wayyomer ELHY"M yehi M"ART bRQIA HSMIM. M"ART is written chasser. W is the Written Torah, M"ART is the Oral Torah. Even though we've established M"ART chasser is Lilit, the Torah hath seventy faces, consequently M"ART in that place is she of whom it saith, Ki ner MSWH w'Torah AWR - Amuda d'Emtzaitha (the Central Column); of him it saith, et-ha-M"AOR ha-gadol l'memsheleth ha-yom w'eth ha-M'AOR ha-qatan l'memshelet ha-lailah.

בראשית, תמן תר"י תמן א"ש, ועלייהו אתמר ויאמר אלקי"ם יהי מארת ברקיע השמים, מארת כתיב חסר ו' דא אורייתא דבכתב, מאי מארת דא אורייתא דבעל פה, ואף על גב דאוקמוה מארת חסר דא לילית, שבעין אנפין לאורייתא, ובגין דא מארת בהאי אתר, ההיא דאתמר בה כי נר מצוה, ותורה אור עמודא דאמצעיתא, ועלייהו אתמר את המאור הגדול לממשלת היום ואת המאור הקטן לממשלת הלילה:

Here is the miswah to perform SDQH. Et-ha-M'AOR ha-gadol alludes to the wealthy. Et-ha-M'AOR haqatan alludes to the poor. As much as the moon (SYHRA) borrows from the sun (SMSA), and she hath no light but from what the sun gives her, so too the Shekhinah saith, "Lend to me and I'll pay off," for so must needs a mortal to be a lender to the poor. And in this similitude do the stars and mazals borrow from one another, and angels one from antoher, and the clue of the thing Umqablin dein min-dein, so doth the Shekhinah which is the SYHRA QDYSA borrow from Kudsha Brikh Hu, and receiveth from Him. As it says of her Ki SMS u'magen H' Elhym. And so did Yehoshua receive from Moshe, as they've established Pnei Moshe k'pnei ChMA upnei Yehoshua k'pnei LBNH. And so were all the prophets before Moshe like SYHRA before SMSA, having no light but from SMSA.

הכא פקודא למעבד צדקה, את המאור הגדול רזא דעתירין, ואת המאור הקטן רזא דמסכנין, וכמה דסיהרא לווה מן שמשא, ולא אית לה נהורא אלא ממה דיהיב לה שמשא, הכי שכינתא אמרת לוו עלי ואני פורע, דהכי צריך בר נש למהוי מלוה למסכנא, וכגוונא דא לווין כוכביא ומזלי דא מן דא, ומלאכיא דא מן דא, ורזא דמלה ומקבלין דין מן דין, הכי לווה שכינתא דאיהי סיהרא קדישא מקודשא בריך הוא, ומקבלת מניה, דאתמר ביה כי שמש ומגן ה' אלקי"ם, והכי הוה מקבל יהושע מן משה, כמה דאוקמוהו פני משה כפני חמה ופני יהושע כפני לבנה, והכי הוו כל נביאיא קדם משה כגון סיהרא וכוכביא קדם שמשא, דלא אית לון נהורא אלא משמשא:

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