If it would have been written like this:
...ואפילו אם ככלות הכל
then it would have made more sense. But the way it's written like this:
...ואחרי ככלות הכל
Makes it sound like it is indeed going to happen.
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The term תבל refers to the terrestial world, like it says (Tehillim 24:1)
לְדָוִ֗ד מִ֫זְמ֥וֹר לַֽ֭יהוָה הָאָ֣רֶץ וּמְלוֹאָ֑הּ תֵּ֝בֵ֗ל וְיֹ֣שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ׃ Of David. A psalm. The earth is the LORD’s and all that it holds, the world and its inhabitants.
The fact that the terrestial world is in existence, floating in outer space and yet functioning is a major miracle, as the verse states (Iyov 26:7):
נֹטֶ֣ה צָפ֣וֹן עַל־תֹּ֑הוּ תֹּ֥לֶה אֶ֝֗רֶץ עַל־בְּלִי־מָֽה׃ He it is who stretched out Zaphon over chaos, Who suspended earth over emptiness.
This is is part of Hashem's promise that the physical earth will continue to exist since mankind needs the world in order to fulfill their mission here. As long as the physical universe is needed, the world will always remain and will never be destroyed.
However, the physical world is not eternal. There was a time before the world was created, and there will be a time after the physical world no longer be needed. The physical world by definition is finite which means it is not eternal. (See Mishneh Torah, Yesodei HaTorah 1:7) Yet Hashem is eternal. He existed before the world was created and He will continue to exist forever. This is what it meant by that phrase from Adon Olam,
אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר מָלַךְ, בְּטֶֽרֶם כָּל יְצִיר נִבְרָא... וְאַחֲרֵי כִּכְלוֹת הַכֹּל, לְבַדּוֹ יִמְלֹךְ נוֹרָא The Master of the World that ruled before anything was created... And after everything is complete/finished, the Awesome One will rule alone... :