In HaMoadim BeHalachah, page 371, Rav Shlomo Zevin endorses the idea raised by Rav Yitzchak Isaac HaLevy that the tefillot were established before the destruction of the Second Temple. However, he takes issue with what he deems an overstatement, that aside from the Birchat Haminim, was no change whatsoever in the days of Yavneh.
He points out several changes in Tefillah that seem to indicate exile or destruction. Would they have said in Musaf, in Temple times, וּמִפְּנֵי חֲטָאֵינוּ גָּלִינוּ מֵאַרְצֵנוּ, "and because of our sins we were exiled from our land", or בְּנֵה בֵיתְךָ כְּבַתְּחִילָה וְכוֹנֵן בֵּית מִקְדָּשְׁךָ עַל מְכוֹנו, "build your house as at first and establish your Bet Hamikdash on its place"? It is logical that this nusach was innovated in the time of Yavneh. And even in the blessings of Shemoneh Esrei, would they have had the bracha of וַתֶחֱזֶינָה עֵינֵינוּ, "and let our eyes see (Your return to Jerusalem in Mercy)", with its conclusion of "who returns his Shechina to Zion"?
All of these are good evidence of post-Destruction editing. And it is convincing (to me, at least), that even this last proof, regarding וַתֶחֱזֶינָה עֵינֵינוּ, is true, in the sense that the point of the blessing as it currently exists (starting with retzei), is the restoration of the Avodah, the service, such that returning the Divine Presence means with the rebuilt Beit HaMikdash. That is why it also includes וְהָשֵׁב אֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה לִדְבִיר בֵּיתֶךָ, that the service should be restored to the Beit HaMikdash.
However, technically, isn't there a problem with his last proof from וַתֶחֱזֶינָה? After all, in Yoma 21b, we read of five differences between the First and Second Temples. One was Divine fire (though this is mitigated / interpreted in the gemara as a different level of fire). Another was the presence of the Shechina:
אֵלּוּ חֲמִשָּׁה דְּבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ בֵּין מִקְדָּשׁ רִאשׁוֹן לְמִקְדָּשׁ שֵׁנִי וְאֵלּוּ הֵן אָרוֹן וְכַפּוֹרֶת וּכְרוּבִים אֵשׁ וּשְׁכִינָה וְרוּחַ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ וְאוּרִים וְתוּמִּים
These are five differences between the First Temple and the Second Temple: The Aron/Ark, the Kapores/Ark covering and the Keruvim/Cherubs, the fire and Shechinah/Divine Presence, Ruach HaKodesh/Divine inspiration, and the Urim VeTumim.
(Which some commentators understand as a full withdrawal and some as a partial withdrawal.) If so, is Rav Zeven's last proof truly solid? Couldn't this blessing then have been a request, composed in Second Temple times, that the Shechina return (from its full or partial absence)?
I understand that other words in the same blessing indicate otherwise (וְהָשֵׁב אֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה לִדְבִיר בֵּיתֶךָ), and that this interpretation might seem somewhat forced, but regardless, how could Rav Zevin have written this, and overlooked such an "obvious" point?