It says in the Zohar, volume 2, 135a-b that during shabbos "...Malchut is united within the mystery of Oneness so that the supernal mystery of Oneness may rest upon her. [This takes place during] the maariv prayer of shabbat eve, for then the holy throne of glory merges into the mystery of Oneness..."

But which time zone does the heavenly sphere follow? Or does it happen as soon as the first minyan of shabbos prayers begin and lasts till the last Jewish community finishes maariv on motzei shabbos?

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  • There is the idea of Gehinom being on "pause" until the congregations start Ma'ariv on Saturday night, and I believe that in that situation it says the "last congregation" to let out Shabbos is when Gehinom "restarts". – Salmononius2 Mar 14 at 15:50
  • @Salmononius2 i was thinking about that as well. Does Gehinom begin it's pause on Friday night with the first maariv minyan? – larry909 Mar 14 at 21:13

In the Mishneh LaMelech's book Parshas Derachim § 23 s.v. עוד נקדים, he quotes his father's teacher Rav Zerachia Guto, who says that in Heaven, Shabbos starts when Jerusalem starts keeping Shabbos.

  • What about Beresheet Rabbah 10:9 that Hashem doesn't need a tosefet Shabbat? Does He nevertheless start with Yerushalayim time or later? – Harel13 Mar 14 at 9:39
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    @Harel13 he starts the exact time shabbos starts, Jerusalem time. We humans who don't know exactly when that time is start shabbos at sundown, but He knows the exact time and so that's when he starts shabbos. [That's my understanding of the text.] – larry909 Mar 14 at 10:27
  • @larry909 So that's not Jerusalem time. Or rather, that's what Jerusalem time would be in a perfect world. In a perfect world where we know exactly when Shabbat starts, we wouldn't need tosefet Shabbat. But we're not perfect, so we do have tosefet Shabbat. But does Hashem have tosefet Shabbat? – Harel13 Mar 14 at 10:36
  • @Harel13 based on that text probably not – larry909 Mar 14 at 11:57

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