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What will the various haftarah readings for Shabbat HaChodesh 5781 be according to different minhagim? What are the respective rationales behind them? Presumably it's not possible to enumerate each minhag and its rationale, but what are the broad strokes?

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In the Mishna Bruah Orach Chaim Simen 685 Seif Katan 13 says that you read the Haftorah for Parshas HaChodash and not for Rosh Chodash. Since you always read the haftorah that is connected to the last Torah Reading that was read.

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    When it's erev rosh chodesh, is the haftarah connected to the last Torah reading?
    – magicker72
    Commented Mar 2, 2021 at 4:00
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    @magicked according to some rishonim, that haftarah about a multiday rosh chodesh is read on Shabbat on the 30th of the month and is indeed connected to maftir. Makes soooo much more sense than our practice
    – Double AA
    Commented Mar 2, 2021 at 13:59
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Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 685:4:

On the fifth Sabbath, which is the twenty-ninth of Adar, we take out two [Torah] scrolls — in one [the Reader] reads the weekly portion, and in the second he reads "This month shall be for you..." (Exodus 12:1) and the haftarah is "In the first [month], on the first of the month..." (Ezekiel 45:18)

So it's clear that even in a year such as 5781, on which Parashat HaChodesh falls on 29th Adar (Erev Rosh Chodesh Nissan), the haftarah contains Ezekiel 45:18.

(The custom to read this haftarah in conjunction with Parashat HaChodesh is ancient, already being found in a beraita quoted in Megillah 30a.)

The precise parts of this passage in Ezekiel which are to be read indeed differs between communities. Hebrew Wikipedia has a handy list:

  • Sefardim: 45:18 - 46:15
  • Ashkenazim: 45:16 - 46:18 (apart from the communities of Frankfurt and Poznan who read like the Sefardim)
  • Italians: 45:18 - 46:11
  • Yemenites: 45:9 - 46:11
  • Romaniotes: 45:21 - 46:10

This year (5781), because Parashat HaChodesh falls the day before Rosh Chodesh, Sefardim have the custom to add the first and last verses of the machar chodesh reading (I Samuel 20:18 and 42) at the end of the haftarah. (See here (Hebrew) from R. Mordechai Eliyahu, paragraph 15.)

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  • Thank you!! I’m wondering what the origin of the Sephardi minhag is . . .
    – הראל
    Commented Mar 2, 2021 at 7:33
  • @KinnardHockenhull Shulchan Aruch OC 425:2 mentions the custom in the case of a two-day Rosh Chodesh (Shabbat and Sunday) to read the regular Rosh Chodesh haftarah on Shabbat, and to add the first and last verses of Machar Chodesh. So it's not much of a stretch to apply that to the case of Parashat Hachodesh on Erev Rosh Chodesh as well. I spent a little time looking for a good early source with reference to Parashat Hachodesh but was unsuccessful. If this aspect interests you, it could be worth asking as a separate question...
    – Joel K
    Commented Mar 2, 2021 at 7:38
  • I’m trying figure out how to word the question.
    – הראל
    Commented Mar 4, 2021 at 18:52

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