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As a Christian, I am very interested in learning what did Jews and Judaism teach about the soul, particularity, what happens to the soul when one dies?

Biblical scholar Bart D. Ehrman, is of the opinion that most of the, what we call, Old Testament, teaches that once one dies, the soul, which is the breath of life (see Genesis 2:7), also goes away. He also notices the the Jewish word for Sheol, mostly means the common grave. And not some Jewish version of the Greek Hades.

However, while that looks plausible I also seems to me that the Christian new Testament, presents Jews, mostly noticeable, the Pharisees, as believing in a resurrection, and in eternal life? This is why I used the word really in my question.

What did Jews really believe about the soul and life after death? I'm interested in the time before Jesus, from the foundation of Judaism, till and including the time of Jesus.

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