A wide held requirement for the minimum volume for a kosher mikvah is 40 se'ah.

Is it permissible to use a 40 se'ah puddle as a keli mikvah? Are there additional requirements such as a minimum depth, or whether the puddle needs to hold the water i.e., water isn't following out etc.?

I appreciate that it may be a considerable concern regarding the safek of the size of the puddle e.g., if the water if unclear (e.g. dirty, murky, filled with leaves). This may be considered in the answer. However, considering that a layman would be able to distinguish a large puddle (e.g. one that may fit a car) even if waters are murky, would it be permissible to use such a body of water as a mikvah to tovel keilim.

I think the question applies for a person immersing in the mikvah, but I don't want to get in to the territory of tzniyut etc.


1 Answer 1


The short answer is yes. As the Mishnah in Maseches Mikvaos says:

גַּל שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ וּבוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, וְנָפַל עַל הָאָדָם וְעַל הַכֵּלִים, טְהוֹרִים. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, טוֹבְלִין וּמַטְבִּילִין. מַטְבִּילִין בַּחֲרִיצִין וּבִנְעָצִים וּבְפַרְסַת הַחֲמוֹר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בַּבִּקְעָה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין בְּחַרְדָּלִית. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁהוּא גוֹדֵר כֵּלִים וְטוֹבֵל בָּהֶם. וְכֵלִים שֶׁגָּדַר בָּהֶם, לֹא הֻטְבְּלוּ:
If a wave was separated [from the sea] and was forty seahs, and it fell on a man or on vessels, they become clean. Any place containing forty seahs is valid for immersing oneself and for immersing other things. One may immerse in trenches or in ditches or even in a donkey-track whose water is connected in a valley. Bet Shammai say: one may immerse in a rain torrent. But Bet Hillel say: one may not immerse. They agree that one may block its flow with vessels and immerse oneself in it, but the vessels with which the flow is blocked are not thereby [validly] immersed.

The question of mud in the mikvah is dealt with here. Other issues, such as changes to the appearance of the water are also dealt with at length.

  • You should really address Ashboren too
    – Double AA
    Jan 25, 2021 at 12:08

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