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To begin with, in Hilchos Shabbos Siman 267 the Shulchan Aruch mentions the change in the blessing of Hashkivanu that we don't say 'Shomer Amo Yisroel' because as the Mishna Berura points out Shabbos itself is a guardian.

However in the next Siman the Shulchan Aruch introduces the blessing of 'Mein Sheva', which the Mishna Berura gives an explanation as to why we say it. The reason being that since majority of the Synagogues back in the day were located in a field, this location was more prone to Mazikim/Dangerous forces. But why did they need to, since it was Shabbos? The Shabbos itself is a guardian so why is they any need for the institution of the blessing of 'Mein Sheva'?

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  • Great question wow!
    – DoreshEmet
    Dec 28 '20 at 16:42
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Perishah to Tur Orach Chaim 267 (answering a slightly different question) explains that there are in fact mazikim on shabbat, which would be consistent with the explanation you give for the recital of me'ein sheva.

He goes on to explain that when we say shabbat provides protection (and therefore we don't say shomer amo yisrael la'ad on shabbat) this means either:

  1. Shabbat provides protection from human enemies (but not mazikim).

  2. Shabbat does provide protection from all sources of danger, but only if we keep it properly. Since we know that we don't do this, we still need to be worried about mazikim. However, it is inappropriate to pray directly for Hashem's protection on shabbat, since it is entirely in our hands: we simply need to keep shabbat properly.

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