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  1. IIRC, before Mt. Sinai, priestly rights were given to the firstborns.
  2. For those who say, Malkitzedek was Shem Ben Noah, he wasn't Noah's firstborn.
  3. I don't know if Abraham was a firstborn, but, unlike Malkitzedek, he's openly mentioned to be very special in following God's steps.

What made Malkitzedek a Cohen on a level greater than Abraham to necessitate Abraham's Maaser to him?

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    Who was Noah's firstborn and how do you know? – Double AA Nov 8 at 1:10
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    The order of birth is disputed by commentaries. – Alex Nov 8 at 1:15
  • Who says he was greater? Bereishis Rabbah 44:7 says Avraham strengthened Shem in mitzvos and maasim tovim – Dov Nov 8 at 9:04
  • Whoever was the firstborn it wasnt shem since he only became 100 two years after the mabbul. – interested Nov 8 at 14:31
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In my answer to your similar question I cited R. Saadiah Gaon (Emunot V'Deiot 3:9) who wrote:

The third [problem is presented by] the fact that God commanded all men to offer up sacrifices and then forbade such activities to everyone except Aaron and his children. But this, too, did not constitute an abrogation, for there is not contained in Scripture a single text indicating that all men had been appointed to perform the sacrificial rite. Before the appointment of Aaron it was only who had been appointed to a position similar to his that performed this rite. One who had not been appointed, however, had no right to engage in the performance of the sacrificial rite, neither before nor after the election of Aaron.

(Rosenblatt translation p. 168-19)

If this is true with regard to sacrificial offerings it may well be true with regard to other functions of the priesthood as well.

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    But Avraham could bring sacrifices. He brought the ram. – Heshy Nov 8 at 1:54
  • אל הכהן – בבמה לא היה צורך בכהן וכל זר יכול להקריב קרבנות mg.alhatorah.org/Full/Vayikra/17/5#e0n6 – interested Nov 8 at 14:43
  • @Heshy Surely והעלהו שם לעולה is as good an appointment as any. – Alex Nov 8 at 16:16

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