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I have read that Rabbi Yehuda Loewe (d. 1609), the “Maharal of Prague,” taught that we will never discover the lost tribes of Israel by searching. He explained that the exile of the ten tribes is a divine decree that will not be rescinded until the messianic era. Even knowing their whereabouts would already be a measure of reunification, and G‑d has decreed that there not be reunification until the time of the final redemption. In other words, ultimately it is G‑d’s decree that is holding us back from discovering the ten lost tribes.

Would anyone be able to provide the actual source of this teaching from the Maharal of Prague with the exact quotes in Hebrew and English? I think that maybe it could be found in Netzach Yisrael, Chapter 34.

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Perhaps you are referring to the passage in Netzach Yisrael Chapter 34 where he explains that the ten tribes will only return during the final ingathering of the exiles, and that we're not concerned of their continued existence in places where they had been known to have been exiled:

דבפרק קמא דיבמות (יז. ) מוכח דלא חיישינן להכי, דקאמר שם גוי שקדש בזמן הזה, אין חוששין לקדושין, ולא חיישינן שמא הוא מעשרת השבטים, דגמירא דבנתיה דההוא דרא אצטרויי אצטרי. פירוש, נבקע רחמה, ולא קלטו הזרע, ושוב ליכא למיחש שנשארו מן עשרת השבטים. ולפיכך צריך לומר דהא דקאמר 'עשרת השבטים עתידין לחזור', הכי קאמר, דלעתיד יחזרו עם שאר גליות.

[From] the first chapter of Tractate Yevamoth (17a) it is [clear] that we are not concerned [that there may be of the ten tribes of Israel mixed amongst the gentiles], for it says there: a gentile who [attempts to] perform Kiddushin [which is only valid when performed by an Israelite or proselyte] nowadays, we are not concerned that the "Kiddushin" might be valid, and we are not concerned perhaps he is from the ten tribes, as "it is learned as a tradition that the girls from the ten tribes of that generation [became barren]", and there was no further concern that there were [descendants] of the ten tribes [mixed among the gentiles]. Therefore, one must say that that which Rabbi Elazar said that the ten tribes are destined to return, the meaning is that they will return in the future along with the rest of the exiles [i.e. they are all already mixed in among the exiled kingdom of Judah].

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I have not learned through that whole chapter, but what I have seen in פרק לד is that the Maharal writes (https://hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=42854&st=&pgnum=114) that some people claim that since there have been travellers all over the world and they have not found the סמבטיון and the people living there, the story can’t be true. He dismisses this by pointing out that if הקב"ה doesn’t want us to find them, we could be standing next to them and not see them. If have seen brought down an example for this from the Israeli submarine Dakar which disappeared on January 9, 1968 en route with 69 men. Despite extensive searches over the course of three decades, Dakar's wreckage was not found until 1999, when it was located between the islands of Cyprus and Crete, an area where the submarine was known to be when it went missing and where many efforts had been made to locate her! If G'd doesn't want you to see something, you won't!

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