Do dictionaries exist that focus on the vocabulary of Rabbinic/Mishnaic Hebrew, including idioms? Ideally, I am hoping that a dictionary exists that includes Rabbinic/Mishnaic Hebrew as well as the Hebrew of Tanakh. I often come across words in Rabbinic texts that are not found in Tanakh, or have a different meaning in Tanakh, and likewise do not exist or have a different connotation in Modern Hebrew. This makes translation difficult when I currently only have access to Tanakh concordances and Modern Hebrew dictionaries.

I would be grateful if someone could recommend what options might exist, including dictionaries that translate the terms into Modern Hebrew as well as those that translate into English.

1 Answer 1


Yes there are several, here are some options:

  1. The Jastrow - You can access it online here.

  2. The Practical Talmud Dictionary by Yitzhak Frank

  3. The Ohr Sameach Gemara Companion by Rabbi Dovid Kaplan

  4. Aiding Talmudic Study by Rabbi Aryeh Carmel

You can also find some common words and key concepts here

Happy learning!

  • Thanks so much Dov - my understanding for the Talmud dictionaries is that they would mostly focus on the Aramaic of the Talmud? And not for example, the Hebrew of Rambam's Mishneh Torah, Rashi, and the other commentators found in Mikraot Gedolot? It's the later that I am looking for.
    – Yaavetz
    Commented Jul 23, 2020 at 18:14
  • @Yaavetz - aha I see, but your subject line though asks about Mishnaic Hebrew which includes the Talmud. A lot of commentators e.g. Rashi employ a similar vocabulary so this should still help.
    – Dov
    Commented Jul 23, 2020 at 18:56
  • There is of course Mishnaic Hebrew in the Talmud, but unfortunately Talmud dictionaries are geared towards the Aramaic that makes up the bulk of the Talmud's text. I actually have the Jastrow already which is great, but I'll have to keep searching for a Mishnaic Hebrew dictionary!
    – Yaavetz
    Commented Jul 23, 2020 at 19:06
  • 1
    I don't know of an exact dictionary but you might want to consider - amazon.com/Grammar-Mishnaic-Hebrew-Language-Resources/dp/… - its a bit more academic than a dictionary but it does help to "demonstrate the organic connexion of this Mishnaic dialect with Biblical Hebrew"
    – Dov
    Commented Jul 23, 2020 at 19:23

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