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As far as I understand, piyyutim (poetic additions to/replacements for certain brachot in public prayer) are optional/only a minhag, and that omitting all of them wouldn't be a problem.

On the other hand, Rabbi Hershel Schachter mentioned in a recent video (here, from 1:10) that the Seder HaAvodah (a piyyut describing the day's proceedings in the Temple — or rather, one of many different such piyyutim) in musaf of Yom Kippur is required, "midina degemara" (by Talmudic law). I know that the Seder HaAvodah was said during the time of the gemara (Yoma 36b, 56b; it wasn't in poetry then), but I don't see where it's described as required. Indeed, there are communities who don't say the Seder HaAvodah during the repetition, but instead say it afterward (although I know of no current community that omits it entirely, but ShimonS points out that Rambam and the old Aleppo rite omit it).

One possible source: Rav Amram Gaon describes the Seder HaAvodah here as חובת היום (requirement of the day), but I think he's actually talking about the sprinklings and viduy, which are the requirements of Yom Kippur in the temple, and not the telling of the Seder in the musaf repetition. In any case, I wouldn't call Rav Amram Gaon's requiring this piyyut as being midina degemara, so I'm interesting in other (earlier) sources.

Is it really required, whether midina degemara or otherwise? If it is, what is the status of a "musaf service" that omits the Seder HaAvodah (both from the musaf repetition and afterward)? If it isn't, is there a strong a priori preference for including it, or can one omit it intentionally?

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    @Shimon 3 is not correct
    – Double AA
    Jul 13 '20 at 15:41
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    It should be also noted that Rav Schachter follows here the approach of Rav Soloveitchik who sees Seder HaAvodah as part of Tefilas HaTzibur (as per Rav Chaim Brisker's understanding of chazaras hashatz) and therefore requires the shatz to say every word of the Avodah out loud (See Halachic Positions and Machzor YK Mesoras HaRav). I have not seen this approach by other poskim.
    – ShimonS
    Jul 13 '20 at 18:13
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    @ShimonS what is the point of a chazzan saying anything quietly? I don't understand. Everything he says is for the tzibbur. Maybe there are poskim who justify after the fact a chazzan who said something quietly, but surely that's just bedieved. I can't think of anything the chazzan should lechatchila say quietly. Either say it aloud or skip it.
    – Double AA
    Jul 13 '20 at 18:41
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    I'm not talking from a halachic point of view but it is certainly the common practice in most Ashkenazi shuls that things that are also said by the tzibur (such as Selichos, or Brachos of Shma and Shma) are said by the Shatz rather quietly. It seems to me that saying parts of the Avodah quietly is the practice of vast majority of Ashkenazi minyanim. The Rabbis there do not protest (and most of the people are learning or reading something anyway).
    – ShimonS
    Jul 13 '20 at 19:43
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    @ShimonS At the end of the day, it seems you agree that some paytanim wrote piyyutim to replace obligatory parts of prayer. Thus, you cannot argue that since the seder ha'avodah is a piyyut, it cannot be obligatory.
    – magicker72
    Jul 13 '20 at 21:20

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