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Why is it called a דבר שאינו מתכיון. Since twice in Gemara Shabbos Rashi understanding and explaining to us what forgetting is when one leaves a rock on top of a barrel says this first on Shabbos 125b uses the word מתכיון then on Shabbos 142b he uses the word מדעת. So seemingly the words are the same, so why did Chazal find it fit to use דבר שאינו מתכיון and not דבר שאינו מדעת?

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The term מתכוין refers to intention. מדעת means awareness.

There are times when the main point is one's awareness of an action, not one's intent. For example, we find in the gemara the concept of אבידה מדעת where something is considered to be "lost" with awareness.

Example: putting items in a garbage pile which will be emptied (Baba Metzia 25b).

It's not a question of whether or not I "intend" on the items being permanently lost; it's a question of whether I was aware that I was putting the items in a place where I might not be able to get them back.

Regarding Shabbos, the main issue is my intention- what I am intending to do? If I'm not intending on doing something, the fact that I know it might happen will be irrelevant.

(The exception to this is פסיק רישא, a type of action where the result is so definite and clear that we say that your knowledge of the action is the equivalent to having intent. See Shabbos 133a)

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  • Well if that is the case why does Rashi use different words when clearly there are the same thing?
    – Russell
    Jun 30 '20 at 16:44
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    I don't know off hand, and it's a great question which is likely discussed in the achronim (I can't check up right now.) Off hand it reminds me of the machlokes trumas hadeshen and beis Yosef about if you have item X on top of item Y, but not on purpose (i.e. they're in a drawer and there's not enough space for them both to lie flat). Does Y become a bosis or not? It could be in one gemara there's a tzad that "maniach" is better since it turns into a kli, so maybe rashi needed to distinguish why you're maniach it, while in the other there was no need to specify. וצ"ע כעת
    – Binyomin
    Jun 30 '20 at 16:59
  • Very interesting.
    – Russell
    Jun 30 '20 at 17:41

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