What happened in history so that there are no-longer high priests?
If succession for the role is by descendant of Aaron, what conditions prevent a new high priest from existing.
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Among other things there are technicalities preventing anyone from becoming high priest today.
Firstly you would need either a king or Sanhedrin to appoint him (Rambam, Laws of the Temple’s Vessels 4:15 and laws of kings 1:7)
Secondly there is a process in him adopting that position that would require him to either be anointed with a special type of oil or putting on the clothes of the high priest.(Rambam, Laws of the Temple’s Vessels 4:12) Being that for technical reasons we no longer have either of the two we can no longer have a high priest either.
Technically there might be high priests, but modern Judaism has decided not to accept or recognize them.
One current title of high priest is held by Aabed-El ben Asher ben Matzliach from the Samaritan community in Israel. You can find out more information about him and his lineage from here: https://www.israelite-samaritans.com/religion/high-priests/