What are the rabbinic (hebrew) words that could equate to "Anti-Torah"?

I am hoping there is only one. In English, I would say the word "Anti-Torah" equates to "lawless" or "lawlessness".

When I search the word "lawless" or "lawlessness" in the Tanach, there are many hebrew words corresponding to it.

To make this short and to the point, the Hebrew word "chamas" is also equated "lawlessness" in Malachi 2:16 in https://www.sefaria.org/Malachi.2.1-9?lang=bi

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    מלכה ושריה בגוים אין תורה
    – Heshy
    May 15 '20 at 10:59
  • 1
    "In English, I would say the translation of 'Anti-Torah' is 'lawless' or 'lawlessness'". In what language is "Anti-Torah", that "lawless" or "lawlessness" are translations of it?
    – Tamir Evan
    May 15 '20 at 11:07
  • @TamirEvan the word "translation" can be taken to mean "equivalent", just as the example I gave, where the translators in sefaria.org made the Hebrew word "chamas" equivalent to "lawlessness".
    – ninamag
    May 15 '20 at 11:12
  • What do you mean by "Anti-Torah"? I wouldn't translate "chamas" as anti-torah; it has more of a negative connotation like stealing and corruption. It's not just breaking the law, it's an abuse of interpersonal relationships. There are many things which are "anti-torah" but not "chamas"- eating a cheeseburger, breaking the sabbath etc. Are you looking for a word for someone who breaks these commandments? Someone who rejects the Torah's authority?
    – Binyomin
    May 15 '20 at 11:16
  • If the word "anti-Torah" were a Hebrew word, what is the Hebrew equivalent? Someone who rejects Torah's authority would indeed be an Anti-Torah Person.
    – ninamag
    May 15 '20 at 11:21

I think, based on the question (which is slightly ambiguous) that the word would be מומר literally "someone who exchanged" (Judaism for something else).

This term is used to refer to someone who doesn't follow the Torah rules. There are two general terms:

1) מומר לתאבון -someone who breaks the rules habitually out of desire. This person knows that a particular action is wrong (i.e. eating cheeseburgers) but the temptation is so strong that they habitually give in. This type of person would keep the laws if given the option; i.e. if there was both kosher and non-kosher meat available, they would choose kosher. But if there was no other meat available, they would eat the non-kosher.

2) מומר להכעיס a rulebreaker in order to "anger" G-d. This person doesn't care about the Torah and willfully rebels against it. Even given a kosher option this person would choose the non-kosher out of spite.

These two types would relate to being "Anti Torah" in action, and in belief, respectively.

This term comes up many places is the Talmud and Halacha. One of the main central places that it is discussed is in Hilchos Shechita, the laws of slaughtering animals, since certain types of mumerim cannot shecht.

See the first 6 daf of Maseches Chulin and Shulchan Aruch Y.D. 2 for specific details nuances about "mumerim.

As mentioned in a comment, censors did change lots of the text in the gemara and rabbinic literature. Specifically, they often interchange the words "mumar" (someone who is 'anti-Torah') "min" (heretic) "goy" (non-Jew) and "akum" (idol worshipper.)

There is sometimes disagreement about whether a source is referring to one category or another. So be aware when trying to research this topic that there is confusion and disagreement on occasion.

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    Note probably half the examples you'll find of this word in the literature are changes made by gentile censors. So be careful trying to figure too much out about its definition by just reading printed texts
    – Double AA
    May 15 '20 at 12:17
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    The main instances of censorship involve printing מומר in place of משומד
    – Joel K
    May 21 '20 at 10:04

possible meanings of "Anti-Torah":

  1. denies divine origin of Torah/any other of Rambam's 13 principles of faith - kofer/כופר
  2. rejects Judaism as a religion - mumar/מומר
  3. rejects rabbinic teachings - min/מין
  • add a source reference.
    – ninamag
    May 18 '20 at 4:02

Two answers!

יבמות סב ב

שנים עשר אלף זוגים תלמידים היו לו לרבי עקיבא מגבת עד אנטיפרס וכולן מתו בפרק אחד מפני שלא נהגו כבוד זה לזה והיה העולם שמם...

Yevamot 62b

twelve thousands pairs of students R' Akiva had, and dies at once, because they didn't pay respect to each other, and the world was desolated...

ע"ז ט א

תנא דבי אליהו ששת אלפים שנה הוי העולם שני אלפים תוהו שני אלפים תורה...

Avoda zara 9:a

A saying from Eliyahu beis midrash: the world is six thousands years, two thousands of chaos, two thousands of Tora...

  • "Anti-Torah" is an active form, while the answers you provided are merely passive. May 21 '20 at 11:49
  • @IsraelReader Where do you see it in the question? how תהו is more passive then חמס? May 21 '20 at 12:43
  • The question was about "Anti-Torah", an active form, not the absence, or lack, of Torah, which is passive. May 21 '20 at 13:04

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