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If one would practically only be missing breakfast, could he say anenu in shacharit and finsh the fast (and not in mincha by which time he has eaten)? or must anenu in shacharit go together with enough hours of fasting to also pray it during mincha before eating?

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  • Are you sure you don't mean to ask about aneinu in shacharit when you will break your fast before Mincha after chatzot?
    – Double AA
    Apr 22, 2020 at 16:55
  • When the Agudah and OU had their fast about a month ago, I said עננו and a bakashah in שמע קולנו Apr 22, 2020 at 16:56

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The Shulchan Aruch 562,1 says not to say Aneinu unless fasting till night but the Rema says in a private fast one can say Aneinu in Shma koleilu of the penultimate Shemone esrei before ending the fast since anyway one can add on suplications but the chazzan cannot make an extra Bracha on a publicly accepted fast that only lasts till Mincha Gedola (see Mishna Brura).

כל תענית שלא שקעה עליו חמה דהיינו שלא השלימו עד צאת הכוכבים דהיינו שיראה ג' כוכבים בינונים או שהלבנה זורחת בכח ותאיר על הארץ (הגהות אשירי פ"ק דתענית והגהות מיימוני פ"א) אינו תענית ואם דעתו לאכול קודם לכן אינו מתפלל עננו: הגה מיהו נוהגין להתפלל עננו אע"פ שאין משלימין עד צאת הכוכבים וכן דעת מקצת רבוותא (תה"ד סי' קנ"ז) ונראה לי דדוקא ביחיד דאומר עננו בשומע תפלה דבלאו הכי יכול להוסיף כמו שנתבאר לעיל סי' קי"ט אבל שליח ציבור לא יאמר עננו אא"כ משלימין וכן נוהגין:

Any fast that does not last till sunset i.e that it was not completed until Tzeis Hacocavim ("The Star Come Out" - i.e. Nightfall), is not a fast, and if he has in mind to eat prior (to Nightfall); he should not pray 'Aneinu' ("Answer Us" - an extra Bracha in the Shemonah Esrei or Amidah prayer).
(Rema): However, we are accustomed to pray 'Aneinu' even if we do not complete until Nightfall, and so the is opinion of some Rabbis [Terumas Hadeshen Siman 157]. It appears that only an individual can say 'Aneinu' since he can anyway add additional supplications in Shema Koleinu as explained earlier in Siman 119, but the Prayer Leader (Shliach Tzibur) on behalf of a congregation of fasters does not say the Bracha 'Aneinu' unless we complete (the fast) and so is our custom.

The Minimum Shiur (length) of a fast is from dawn till Mincha Gedola as the Mishna Brura 562,1 6 explains the Rema:

ו) אף על פי שאין משלימין - היינו אם פירש בשעת קבלה שלא להשלים אפילו התענה רק עד מנחה גדולה מתפלל עננו
he needs to have accepted the mincha on the day before to fast till Mincha Gedola (30 minutes after Halachic midday) and then he can say "Aneinu"

Though if one says Aneinu in Shacharis he should avoid say Tzom Taaniseinu Mishna Brura 565,3 8

ועיין בט"ז שכתב דאם רוצה להתפלל בשחרית ענינו ולדלג תיבות ביום צום תעניתנו הרשות בידו דאז אין חשש שמא ימצא שקרן
The taz says that one who says Aneinu in Shacharis should not say the words "our fast day" so that if he becomes unwell and eats he is not false stating.

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  • Is there really any concern one won't finish a taanit shaot that your taz would apply to this case?
    – Double AA
    Apr 22, 2020 at 18:15
  • My recollection is that the fast must also be planned, i.e. from the [time of] Mincha the day before. If you just happened to not eat, it's not enough to be able to call it a fast and say Aneinu.
    – Menachem
    Apr 22, 2020 at 21:24
  • @doublleaa if you look at Oc 565 mb the only reason why we can say aneinu after mincha gedola on a regular fast is because one is not a Shakran false stater as one has fasted half a day and afflicted himself. so even if one does become unwell and craves food its ok. in shacharis however if he craves food (definition of bulmus), and has to eat he has not fasted a significant amount and looks like a Shakran saying that he has aflicted himself. So it does still apply as anyone can suddenly crave food even earlier in the day.
    – user15464
    Apr 22, 2020 at 21:59

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