The question is a bit confusing. What does it mean for G-d to "owe" us something?
This can be addressed in a few different ways:
1) There's a medrash Rabbah (in Vayikra, I don't remember exactly where) which discusses how any mitzvah we do is only after we received from G-d.
i.e.- you can only put a mezuzah on a house after G-d gave you the house.
You can make a bracha on food only after G-d gave you the food to eat. etc.
Based on this, G-d can't owe us anything. All that we do is try to use those things which G-d has already given us and show that we're using it the best that we can.
It's comparable to a worker who has a credit card, paid for by his company, for business expenses.
If one day they decide to stop paying for the card, he can't claim "You owe me to continue paying for the card. See, each month I've fully detailed expenses and everything has been for the sake of the company!"
That claim is irrelevant. The fact that he has faithfully used the card in the past only justifies why they have paid in the past. But that in no way creates an obligation regarding the future.
Likewise, no matter how righteous we have been and how well we have used the resources granted to us, that only justifies G-d's giving to us in the past.
We can't claim "you owe us for the future" as well. Why should G-d owe us?
2) There's a famous question asked, whose answer is relevant to you.
In the desert, the Jewish people received 3 special gifts- the "mann" (heavenly sustanence), the well which supplied water, and the clouds of glory.
Of all three, we only commemorate the clouds of glory with a holiday- sukkos.
Why don't we commemorate the mann and the well?
Some commentators explain (I believe I saw this in the bnei yissachar, and I saw it quoted in the name of the Chida and Ohr HaChayim though I don't know where) Hashem "owed" the Jewish people mann and the well.
After all, he took us out to the desert. Since he took us from mitzraim (Egypt) and brought us to a place without food, he was obligated to sustain us. It's simple justice- you need to sustain those who are dependent on you.
But the clouds of glory- that was a special miracle which didn't have to occur. We could have survived without it. Since it wasn't necessary, and G-d gave it to us anyway, it deserves special recognition.
According to this, there is room to say that G-d "owes" us the minimum we need to survive. Of course, this doesn't help us much practically.
First, we don't know what is the minimum- maybe we've already received it,
Second, perhaps we've done sins which have made us unworthy.
3) As the Ramchal explains (beginning of mesilas yesharim, also in daas tevunos and other places) Hashem created us in order to do good and benificant. That's our purpose- we're in this world to perfect ourselves and come closer to G-d (both in this world and the next.) Such closeness is the ultimate good G-d could give. But like any relationship, we develop our side of the connection through fulfilling the mitzvos, working on self-development and making ourselves worthy of being so connected.
According to this perspective, your 2 initial points are both true.
G-d does provide what we need. He does take care of us.
But, what we need (to work on self perfection and to fulfill our purpose in this world and obtain the ultimate good) is not the same as what we want.
We all know of plenty of people who suffered tremendous accidents, and as a result ending up accomplishing much more after they became handicapped than they ever would have had they stayed healthy.
If you'd ask them initially, they would have said that potential growth isn't worth the suffering.
But after they grew from the challenge, they almost always acknowledge that without the accident and the disability they never would have accomplished as much as they did.
According to this point, the question of G-d owing is irrelevant. Even if He does owe us, since he created us (as per #2 above) he would only owe use what would bring us to the ultimate good- which might be very different than what we think He owes us.
in short- no matter which perspective you choose, G-d doesn't owe us anything specific that I could demand, or get upset if I didn't receive it.