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Based on what I have read on this site and heard from a rav, the majority of what most people currently do during burial is minhag rather than halacha.

Is there a written or online compilation of halachot and minhagim (Ashkenaz, Sephardi, or others) explaining both the procedures as well as the reasons for what is commonly done during burial. Among the things I've seen:

  • Carrying the coffin a few feet while reciting something (I don't know what); stopping, and repeating this process several times until they reach the grave.
  • Positioning the coffin so that the head faces a certain direction
  • How much must be manually shovelled and what can be done by machine?

There are likely many other rules and customs in addition to the above. I'd like to find a single source that explains most or all of these.

Note / Update

I pretty much know the main rules of mourning and burial. I am specifically interested in sources that explain the reasons for various items done at burial, not merely a list of what to do. Per, @DoubleAa's suggestion, please specify which sections of your source explains what is done during just the burial, not the rest of mourning period. If the source does not provide any reason for anything, then this is not what I am seeking.

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If you are somewhat language limited and prefer English, you should consider Mourning in Halacha by Rabbi Chaim Binyamin Goldberg.

It is quite comprehensive and heavily footnoted.

The subject of burial is covered primarily in chapters 9 and 10 with some related information in chapter 12.

Concerning your first bullet point, this practice is called Ma’amadot (Halts) and is addressed in 10:15, pp. 132-133.

I’m not sure what you are referring to in bullet point 2.

Bullet point 3 is addressed generally in 10:17 saying that:

1: Actual practice should follow the custom of the local Chevrah Kaddisha being used.

2: All those attending the burial should place at least some dirt to participate in the actual covering.

and

3: The details of how to handle the shovel or other tool for the burial.

I saw nothing in the text addressing what percentage must be done manually with a shovel versus allowing the grave diggers to finish the fill in with a backhoe. But from personal experience, this varies according to civil, legal requirements from one locale to the next. The owners of the particular cemetery or the grave diggers will let you know.

For what it’s worth, a generous gratuity to the (non-Jewish) grave diggers will often eliminate whatever obstacles you might encounter to allow one of the Jews present for the burial to drop the shovel of the backhoe.

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    Are there particular sections of the book that answer the OPs questions? Most of it appears to be about the laws of mourning, which is not what he asked about. – Double AA Jan 14 at 14:31
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Another excellent resource is The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning by Maurice Lamm

  • Are there particular sections of the book that answer the OPs questions? Most of it appears to be about the laws of mourning, which is not what he asked about. – Double AA Jan 14 at 14:31
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The Laws of Mourning by Rabbi Shmuel Tendler is a concise book of laws ranging from last hours of life to the yahrzeit.

Product Description from Amazon:

The Laws of Mourning is a compilation of mourning laws intended to set down in front of the mourner the basic fundamental halachos that he/she must be made aware of from immediately prior to the time of death through the extended mourning period.

The first four chapters discuss the items you are looking for. Chapter 1 - Last Hours Chapter 2 - Death until funeral Chapter 3 - At the Chapel Chapter 4 - At the Cemetery

  • Are there particular sections of the book that answer the OPs questions? Most of it appears to be about the laws of mourning, which is not what he asked about. – Double AA Jan 14 at 14:31

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