I have done some digging and I cannot seem to find anywhere where people try to explain this apparent discrepancy.
Numbers 1 says the total number of Israelites were 603,550. However, if you add up the numbers listed for the 12 tribes yourself, the total comes to 563,050. This is 40,500 less than the total given in the text.
Reuben - 46500 Simeon - 59300 Gad - 45650 Judah - 74600 Issachar - 54400 Zebulun - 57400 Joseph Ephraim - 40500 Manasseh - 32200 Benjamin - 35400 Dan - 62700 Asher - 41500 Naphtali - 53400 Real total: 563050
Why is there a difference between the real total and what the text gives as the total? Are the remaining 40500 the tribe of Levi? Or are they proselytes? Is there any way of knowing for sure?