What an excellent question. Though first let’s define our terms. For the sake of brevity, I will share two links to previous answers defining prophecy and the nature of G-d's all-knowingness.
Now to the question.
Why didn’t Jonah immediately obey God’s command to go into Nineveh? After all, didn't Abraham ‘blindly’ obeyed to sacrifice Isaac? Is it possible that a person can hear G-d’s voice and yet show disobedience? Did Jonah hear G-d’s voice? Maybe it was an inspiration—but nevertheless an act he was uncertain about. If it was G-d’s voice as the Bible implies, was it a small still voice as with Elijah or was it fiery thunder as with the people at Sinai?
We read that Noah was “a righteous man, perfect in his generation” (Genesis 6:9). In a word, he had ‘perfect’ faith. But what is faith? American satirist Ambrose Bierce defined faith like this: a “belief without evidence in what is told by one who speaks without knowledge of things.” The Devil’s Dictionary.
Did Noah think or acted on blind faith? Does G-d want us to have faith? Actually “faith” isn’t in the Hebrew Bible. The world “faith,” emunah, means “steadfast” or “steady.” Thus Moses’ hands were “steadily” held, not faithfully.
We read in Genesis 18 that Abraham debated the verdict with G-d whether to lay waste the city of Sodom. G-d approves of his reasoning and declares that He will spare the city if ten inhabitants are found not guilty. Others followed in Abraham’s footsteps. Moses, Isaiah and Jeremiah, felt it was unreasonable for G-d to select them for their divine mission despite Moses being a general in Pharaoh’s army. They questioned G-d to the point where the Judge Gideon asked for proof of his victory. They doubted the reasoning but used their intelligence as G-d desired.
The historian Josephus was so bothered with Noah's willingness to accept the divine decree that he imagined an episode of Noah begging G-d never again to flood the earth. Rabbi Judah in the Midrash Genesis Rabbah questioned Noah’s ‘righteous.’ He said in the Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 108a, regarding Noah, that “In a street of totally blind people, a one-eyed man is called clear-sighted, and an infant a scholar.” Rabbi Nehemiah said that while Noah in Genesis 6:9 “walked with G-d,” Abraham in 17:1 walks “before Me [G-d].” which means that Noah had to rely on G-d while Avraham led the way. Some went as far as to say that Noah was only righteous in his generation (and would not be in another) simply because he did not warn anyone about the coming flood.
Maimonides also comments on one using his intelligence in his medical book Aphorisms, writing:
If anyone tells you that he has proof from his personal experience of something that he needs to confirm his theory, even though he is recognized as a man of great authority and truthfulness – sincere and moral – yet because he is so anxious for you to believe his notion, do not hesitate. Do not allow yourself to be swayed by the novelties that he tells you. Examine his theory and beliefs carefully.... Look into the matter. Don’t let yourself be persuaded.
Is it right to obey divine decrees without question? Did this improper act prompt the jihadist to fly plains into buildings simply because they did not use their intelligence to question the Koran and its evil teachings? Must we follow everyone of authority or listen to their arguments, evaluate them, and reject or accept their teaching based on our understanding of them. Indeed the Mishnah, Pirke Avot 2:6 says that: “An individual who acts without reason can still be a righteous fool.”