The sages Rashi and Nachmanides, come to mind. For example, while Rashi felt that we knew why G-d created the world, Rambam felt this was impossible to know. Rashi also believed in the existence of demons. He describes the demon: “the feet of a demon is like a rooster’s,” and felt that Noah saved them on the ark. In contrast, the Rambam did not believe in demons.
Mystics, like Nachmanides, felt that nothing happens in this world unless G-d wills it to do so. Thus, according to Nachmanides, the world does not function through the laws of nature. He explains,
“From [belief in] large perceptible miracles one [comes to believe] in
hidden miracles, which are the very foundation of the entire Torah. A
person has no share in the Torah of Moses our teacher until he
believes that all that occurs is the result of miracles, not the laws
of nature. … Everything happens by divine decree.”
Thus, Nachmanides stressed the notion that there are “hidden miracles.” For example, a falling leaf. The great sage felt that no leaf fell from a tree unless G-d ordered it to: “fall, keep falling, keep falling, keep falling, stop, now lay still.” Ramban also felt that doctors were unnecessary and that G-d determines the outcome of all wars.
Maimonides disagreed. Maimonides wrote in his Guide of the Perplexed 3:17 and 18 that it is not,
”through the interference of divine providence that a certain leaf
falls [from a tree], nor do I hold that when a certain spider catches
a certain fly, that this is the direct result of a special decree and
will of G-d in that moment… In all these cases the action is,
according to my opinion, entirely due to chance, as taught by