It is clear from the Sugiyot Gemmorah (Brochos and Shabbos 10, here) that the lengthening the Teffilah at the expense of Torah learning was perceived negatively through many generations till late Amorayim (c300AD):

רבא חזייה לרב המנונא דקא מאריך בצלותיה. אמר מניחין חיי עולם ועוסקים בחיי שעה. והוא סבר זמן תפלה לחוד וזמן תורה לחוד רבי ירמיה הוה יתיב קמיה דרבי זירא והוו עסקי בשמעתא נגה לצלויי והוה קא מסרהב רבי ירמיה קרי עליה רבי זירא מסיר אזנו משמוע תורה גם תפלתו תועבה

Speaking of prayer, the Gemara relates that Rava saw Rav Hamnuna, who was prolonging his prayer. He said about him: They abandon eternal life, the study of Torah, and engage in temporal life, prayer, which includes requests for mundane needs. The Gemara explains: And Rav Hamnuna held that the time for prayer is distinct and the time for Torah is distinct. The time that one devotes to prayer is not at the expense of the time devoted to Torah study. Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yirmeya was sitting before Rabbi Zeira and they were engaged in the study of halakha. The time for prayer was approaching and it was getting late and Rabbi Yirmeya was hurrying to conclude the subject that they were studying in order to pray. Rabbi Zeira read this verse as applying to Rabbi Yirmeya: “One who turns his ear from hearing Torah, his prayer is also an abomination” (Proverbs 28:9).

Since the majority of the davening at Rosh-Hashanah is dedicated to prayers for our personal wellbeing (even מלכויות וזכרונות), it can surely be considered חיי שעה.

Did this approach make a way to the later generations? Were there Gdoylim that followed it? Is there currently a Rabbi/movement that prefers Torah learning to the long hours of davening?

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    Contrast with Berachos 32b: תנו רבנן חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת ומתפללין שעה אחת וחוזרין ושוהין שעה אחת וכי מאחר ששוהין תשע שעות ביום בתפלה תורתן היאך משתמרת ומלאכתן היאך נעשית אלא מתוך שחסידים הם תורתם משתמרת ומלאכתן מתברכת – Alex Sep 29 at 1:10
  • @Alex Good Point, Did we all suddenly turn Chassidim? – Al Berko Sep 29 at 7:06

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