I hear occasionally about fast days in Israel when there's no rain. Some examples are in this answer. From one of the links there, R' Mosheh Lichtenstein is not in favor of fasting for rain in a situation where it's not life and death danger, as it was in the time of the Gemara.
Do communities around the world declare fast days for potentially life-threatening events? I'm thinking in particular of hurricanes, which threaten lives yearly in the Carribean and southeastern US. As far as I can tell, a strong enough hurricane is basically equivalent to עיר שהקיפה נהר, which is one of the dangers you can daven for on Shabbos. And, while a hurricane is probably less dangerous today than it was thousands of years ago, people can and do still die from them R"l, so R' Mosheh Lichtenstein's primary points don't seem to apply.
Do Jewish communities in Florida, Puerto Rico, and other threatened places declare fast days when there's a hurricane approaching? If not, why not? And the same question applies to other natural disasters that can be predicted a few days in advance.