From what I've heard, two of them have definite rules:
Kal Vachomer doesn't need a mesorah.
Gezeirah Shavah does need a mesorah.
But what about everything else, such as a Hekesh, or a Clal u'prat, or a Binyan Av?
Halichos Olam (shaar 4) quotes Rashi and Tosafos to Sukkah 31a, who disagree about this. Rashi (ד"ה לא מקשינן) says that only a kal vachomer can be thought up independently, but not any of the others. Tosafos (ד"ה ור"י) argue, and say that only gezeirah shavah requires a mesorah, but all of the others can be thought up independently.
Yavin Shmuah, a little further on, suggests that maybe Rashi's statement in Sukkah is only according to R' Yehuda, but that the Chachomim would say more like Tosafos, that you only need a mesorah for gezeirah shavah.