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The Gemmorah in Jerusalem Rosh Hashana 6a explains the process of adopting the Babylonian names instead of Biblical ones.

דא"ר חנינה שמות חדשים עלו בידם מבבל
R'Hanina said: the names of the Months were brought with them from Babylon

WIKI on Metonic_cycle claims that the 19 years 12/13 month cycle was used by Babylonians [at least] from the times of the First Temple:

"According to Livy, the king of Rome Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC, [mid first Temple]) inserted intercalary months in such a way that in the twentieth year the days should fall in with the same position of the sun from which they had started."

I'm looking for counterexamples in our sources, that the Jewish calendar as we know it was practiced prior to the Babylonian exile.

Are there verses that Bney Israel kept Kiddush HaChodesh and Ibbur Hashana from Yehoshua till the destruction of the First Temple?

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    Shmuel alef 20 . – Double AA Aug 21 at 22:06
  • עשה ירח למועדים – Heshy Aug 21 at 22:38
  • Amos 8:5 and Targum Yonasan (cited in Rashi) there. Also Divrei Hayamim 2 30:2 and 18, according to some opinions in Sanhedrin 12a-b. – Meir Aug 21 at 22:59
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    Do you have any reason to suspect that they didn't? Why do you think Tanach would have recorded it if they did? Presumably, B"Y observed hundreds of Mitzvos daily for hundreds of years, but the Tanach only recorded what was important to be recorded for future generations. (For the record, it's fine if your answer to those two questions are "no reason at all, just curious", but if there is additional motivation or thought behind the question, it's usually beneficial to flesh it out of possible. Gives people more motivation to search as well as a possible direction where to look) – Salmononius2 Aug 21 at 23:22
  • @Salmononius2 No need to suspect - החושד בכשרים... Well, I tried to phrase it as neutral as I could. WIKI (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle#Mathematical_basis) claims that : "According to Livy, the king of Rome Numa Pompilius (753-673 BC, [mid first Temple]) inserted intercalary months in such a way that in the twentieth year the days should fall in with the same position of the sun from which they had started." I try to find counterexamples in our sources. – Al Berko Aug 22 at 5:10

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