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Why is Hell (גהינום) named after גיא בן הינום , the Valley of the son of Hinom? And what is גיא בן הינום anyways? Why don’t we just call it Sheol like the Torah does?

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The Torah (well, Nach, really) does call it She’ol, but it also calls it a number of other names. You can ask on Nach itself: why does it use multiple names and not stay consistent? It’s because, as described in Eruvin 19a, each name has some significance regarding Gehennom’s function.

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