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I saw a great reason given by R' Tzaddok HaKohen about why the story about the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash and its aftermath is specifically in Maseches Gittin 55b-58a:

(adapted from a Jewish Standard article)

Rav Zadok HaKohen in his work Peri Zadik on Bereishit explains that [...] everything in the Talmud is in its purposeful place.

The Talmudic texts about the Churban are in Masechet Gittin which deals with the laws of the divorce because the destruction of the Temple and the resultant exile of the Shechina, God’s heavenly presence, is akin to a divorce between God and the Jewish people.

Rav Zadok further elaborates that not only is the tractate in which an Aggadah appears carefully chosen but the chapter as well. The stories of the Hurban appear in Gittin Chapter 5 also known by its first word, HaNizakin, the Damages. Unlike much of Masechet Gittin, HaNizakin discusses damages not divorce. With the Hurban God’s presence appears to leave the Jewish people. However, God never truly severs his relationship with his people since the covenant between God and the Children of Israel is everlasting. Rather, the Churban is more like a Nezek, with the relationship becoming damaged, but never truly broken.

I know the Maharal/ Maharsha/ Ein Yaakov have well known Aggadic works/ commentaries. Is this question addressed by each Aggada story?

If not does a sefer exist that explains the reason as to why the Aggadic portions of the Talmud are specifically located where they are?
(for ex: the Rabbah bar bar Chana stories in Bava Basra 73b-74b)

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    (I believe the long list of medical remedies is also included in Gittin because it is also considered a form of exorcising/expelling/divorcing a harmful entity from the body.) – Loewian Aug 15 at 4:29

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