I know this has been covered by many commentators in the past, and here also, but I am still looking for a clear resolution of the ambiguities.

Who wrote the Book of Deuteronomy? Does Tradition really answer “God”? The Talmud says: Bava Batra 14b

Umi ch’tavan? -- And who are the writers [of the Scriptures]?

Moshe katav sifro, uparshat Bilaam, v’Iyyov. Yehoshua katav sifro ve-shmona f’sukim she-baTorah -- Moses wrote his book, and the portion dealing with Bilaam [in the Book of Numbers] [Num. 23-24] and the Book of Job. Joshua wrote his book and [the last] eight verses of the Torah [which deal with the death of Moses].

(1) It says, “Moses wrote his book”. What is the book that “Moses wrote”, if not Deuteronomy?

(2) Tradition says “The Torah”. But he did not write “the Torah” himself – God dictated it to him. The Talmud goes on to name the authors of all the books in the Tanach. These authors may have been "inspired", but the books were not "dictated" to them.

(3) And if it does mean that Moses wrote the Torah, why does the Talmud add “and the parts dealing with Bilaam”, since those parts are included in the Torah? The phrasing implies that "Moses' book" and "the parts dealing with Bilaam" are two different things.


רמב"ן הקדמה לבראשית

בראשית. משה רבינו כתב הספר הזה עם התורה כולה מפיו של הקדוש ברוך הוא וכו' זה אמת וברור הוא שכל התורה מתחלת ספר בראשית עד לעיני כל ישראל נאמרה מפיו של הקדוש ברוך הוא לאזניו של משה

Ramban's Introduction to Bereishis

Bereishis. Moses wrote this book [Bereishis] along with the the entire Torah from the mouth of Hakodosh Boruch Hu [...] It is true and clear that the entire Torah from the beginning of the book of Bereishis until le'einei kol Yisroel was said from the mouth of Hakodosh Boruch Hu to the ears of Moses.

Moses' book is the entire Torah not just Deuteronomy.

As for answers to the Bilaam question see the link in the comments on the question.

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