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My understanding is that the Amidah was recited only by the Shat'z during a period before the printing of Siddurim and, perhaps, when Hebrew proficiency was weak.

I'm assuming that because the Kedusha has Congregational responses, that this was introduced when Siddurim were more readily available and people had access to the text. But, I may be incorrect, and, perhaps, the Shat"z recited the Kedusha by himself?

When was it introduced - approximate date / era?

  • There are exactly 13 words of congregational response for Kedusha, and the first 3 are the same. No need for a siddur for that. It's just two half verses קדוש קדוש קדוש ה צבאות מלא כל הארץ כבודו ברוך כבוד ה ממקומו – Double AA Jul 30 at 20:45
  • This question seems to imply that congregants didn't say anything prior to the proliferation of Siddurim. This clearly isn't true, as people said Shema, general Brachos, etc. regularly. Shemonah Esrei was an exception, probably due to it's length and complexity, which wouldn't apply to Kedusha. – Salmononius2 Jul 30 at 21:03
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The Hebrew Wikipedia entry for Kedushah (and as cited by @DoubleAA in the comments) seems to reference the Tosefta Berachos, 1:11 as the earliest source for Kedushah:

רבי יהודה היה עונה עם המברך (ישעיהו ו) קדוש קדוש קדוש ה' צבאות מלא כל [הארץ כבודו] (יחזקאל ג) וברוך כבוד ה' ממקומו כל אלו היה ר' יהודה אומר עם המברך

Rebbi Yehudah would say together with the one that made the Beracha, Kadosh Kadosh Kadosh Hashem Tzevaot Melo Kol Haaretz Kevodo (Isaiah 6:3) (Holy, Holy, Holy, Hashem Tzevaot, the earth is full with His glory) and Baruch Kevod Hashem Mimkomo (Ezekiel 3:12) (Blessed be the glory of Hashem from His place). All of these Rebbi Yehudah would say together with the one that made the Beracha

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    I always thought that The Malachim wait fo us to say Kedusha before they can say it themselves and this goes back since Moshe Rabeinu as an oral Transmision, but i guess the tosefta is the first written source as it doesn't seem to to be in the Mishna so thumbs up – user15464 Jul 30 at 21:29

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