Inspired by an answer here:

Does the recitation of Kabbalas Shabbos require a minyan?

I was always under the impression that we do it together by convention rather than necessity, but one could lechatchila recite Kabbalas Shabbos at home, and join the minyan for Maariv. This answer sounds like there is some sort of significance in 10 people.

Is there any source for this, either way?

  • 2
    This isn't specifically 10 but Rambam (Shabbos 30,2) says that Chachamim would gather their students together to go and greet shabbos. Jul 22, 2019 at 15:36
  • 1
    I would think the only items in kabbalah shabbos that require a minyan are the kaddishes.
    – Dennis
    Jul 22, 2019 at 15:52
  • 4
    How could it? None of the 3 daily tefillot require a minyan, how could a collection of tehillim and songs that only dates to the 16th century? Jul 22, 2019 at 17:11
  • 2
    @JoshK the question remains if there's benefit to having 10 like with the main prayers
    – Double AA
    Jul 22, 2019 at 17:59
  • 1
    I assume they sent 10 people as a way of maintaining Kabbalas Shabbos as part of the customary communal liturgy, not that it requires a minyan strictly speaking.
    – Fred
    Jul 22, 2019 at 17:59

2 Answers 2


At least during the pandemic, Rabbi Mordechai Willig shlit'a has led Kabbalas Shabbos up until Mizmor Shir on Zoom, with guitar. (From KolCorona). Which strongly implies not a minyan.

בפראג נהגו לערוך קבלת שבת בכלי שיר ואמרו מזמור שיר ליום השבת בתנאי שלא מקבלים שבת ואח"כ חזרו הביתה להתכונן לקראת שבת ושוב חזרו לבהכ"נ לקבל שבת באמירת מזמור שיר ליום השבת פעם שנית (קובץ בית אהרן וישראל תשרי-חשון תשנ"ח עמ' קיט-קלד). ועד היום אומרים שם מזמור שיר ליום השבת פעמיים, רצופים (מפי דר. שניאור ליימן נ"י). וא"כ מותר לערוך קבלת שבת ע"י זום, בתנאי שלא לקבל שבת. ולכן נראה שלא יעמדו לפנות אחורה כנהוג, ועדיף שלא יאמרו מזמור שיר ליום השבת אף שמותר מדינא. וכן אני נוהג בתקופה זו כל ערב שבת, בכלי שיר לחיזוק, תפלת מנחה, וקבלת שבת עד בואי כלה בלי לעמוד ולהתהפך, הכל ע"י זום.

In Prague they would say kabbolas shabbos with instruments, intending to accept shabbos later ... so I do during this [pandemic] era every Friday afternoon, with a musical instrument for emotional strengthening, Mincha and Kabalas Shabbos until Bo'i Kala -- without rising and turning around, all on Zoom.


There's one practice that I have seen that implies that a minyan is not required for Kabbalat Shabbat.

If I recall correctly, our shul had exactly 10 people for the minyan. An avel (mourner) came to shul and davened mincha Fri. evening. Just prior to Kabbalat Shabbat, the rabbi asked him to leave the shul and he returned just pior to reciting Mizmor Shir Leyom Hashabbat (Psalm 92.) This is because Kabbalat Shabbat is considered a "separate service", and technically, it is "not yet Shabbat " (We have a M.Y. question explaining this - I have to locate it.) so that person is still "in mourning display mode." Once Shabbat, is "official", which occurs with reciting Psalm 92, the mourner accepts Shabbat and he may not display public mourning.

The point is, that this action indicates that a minyan is not needed to say Kabbalat Shabbat.

There is a separate angle as to whether the recitation of Psalm 92 is the only method to indicate Shabbat acceptance, and even when used, does an individual reciting that Psalm accept Shabbat, or is it only for a tzibbur. I will try to edit that argument in, later.


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