I've encountered Jewish and non-Jewish thinkers suggest that we, as finite creatures, cannot know the absolute, objective truth. All we can do (in This World), I've heard suggested, is to approach (in an asymptotic sense) the absolute truth through dialectic synthesis (i.e. thesis, antithesis, synthesis).
By absolute truth, I refer to knowledge of any thing in and of itself (i.e. the noumenon, or Kant's "Ding an sich") gained through the empirical world in which we live 1.
What do our Sages (classical and recent) have to say on the matter?
1. H/T @Al Berko for suggesting to clarify