The Torah declares that before Matan Torah, the firstborns were responsible for bringing sacrifices and Cohanim replaced them after the Golden Calf incident (Num 3,40):

:וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם לִי אֲנִי ה' תַּחַת כָּל־בְּכֹר בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל

and take the Levites for Me, the LORD, in place of every first-born among the Israelite people...

As Rashi explains on Ber 25:31:

בכרתך. לְפִי שֶׁהָעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת, אָמַר יַעֲקֹב אֵין רָשָׁע זֶה כְדַאי שֶׁיַּקְרִיב לְהַקָּבָּ"ה:

THY BIRTHRIGHT — Because the sacrificial service was then carried out by the first-born sons, ...

Why Abel brought his sacrifice on his own and didn't ask to do that from his firstborn brother?

  • Because Kayin was evil obviously. If you get any other than this I will be surprised. – Aaron Jun 10 at 16:23
  • The head of the household (father [Job 1:5] or firstborn) brings the sacrifice on behalf of his entire (subordinate) family [1 Samuel 20:6]. But Cain and Abel seem to have been mature (and independent) by that point (perhaps even fathering families of their own). – Lucian Jun 11 at 0:29
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    @Aaron Even if you’re correct that at that point he was wicked (and I’m not sure where you get that from), how did Hevel know that? – DonielF Jun 11 at 2:31

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