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I think I learned that a synagogue even after it is no longer being used as such retains some measure of a special status (though I don't know if the word "kedusha" would attach) which limits what it can be turned into (I know that in Megilla this is discussed but I thought I heard that it is more extensive than just there). Does a mikvah have similar rules? Can I take a mikvah and use it as a hot tub or something else? Or does it have/retain any special status?

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See Rambam in the comment of the Mishna Mikvaot 1.4:

מעלה שלישית שיהיו המים מכונסין נתקבצו בלי שאיבה ויש בו מ' סאה הנה הוא כשר לטהר בו הטמאים ולטהר בו הכלים הטמאים והוא אמרו טובלין ומטבילין וכן מטבילין בו את הידים לדברים אשר יצטרכו נטילת ידים וכבר התבאר בחגיגה (שם) שלקודש מטבילין את הידים ואינן ראוים לנטילה ולשון התוספתא (פ"א) זה הכלל כ"מ שאדם טובל ידים וכלים טובלין אין אדם טובל אין ידים וכלים טובלין:‏

The third degree (linked to a list in the Mishna). Water that is accumulated and are there without having been tapped. This water point is Kosher for make pure impure persons and utensils... they can also immerse the hands (equivalent of Netilat Yadayim)...

It appears clearly that Mikve is a natural place, without special preparation. The great caution today around the Mikve is to make sure that the water were not tapped or mixed with a great amount of tapered water. The verse itself mention only water, not a mikve made with a ritual intent.

וְאִישׁ כִּי תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת כָּל בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד הָעָרֶב.‏

The Gemara you mentioned in Megila addresses things they have a kedusha. Mikve has no kedusha.

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