This question focuses on the term "Matan Torah" used everywhere, its practical and factual events (no metaphors, please). Also, this is not about the festival of Shavuos as in this question.

I've heard a lot of metaphorical descriptions of Maamad Har Sinai, like the revelation of G-d Himself, the visions, the voices, the feeling of closeness and oneness. After all the "bells and whistles", if I get it right, what actually happened at Mt Sinai, as Torah itself describes it, is that the Jews had heard/seen the first 2 commandments from G-d and the rest 8 from Moses.

Then the big show was over, everyone returned to their tents and Moses went up to study for 40 days and receive the Luchos in writing. Forty days later the Golden Calf incident happened. Then another forty days of Moses's seclusion, and then he came back on Yom Kippur.

To sum it up - there were the Decalogue and the Luchos, but what I don't see anywhere in this happenings is Matan Torah - the giving of the Torah as I know it - the 5 Books of Moses.

Moreover, the Torah (or NAC"H) doesn't have such a term or a day to celebrate Matan Torah at all, so it is clearly was made much later. Even if we follow the approach that Moses received a full finished Torah scroll after he descended the second time, Yom Kippur should be called Matan Torah.

So: Why the Sinai revelation of the Decalogue (and/on the Luchos) is called "Matan Torah" and who established it?

  • 1
    What exactly is your question? Why is Shavuos called Zman Matan Toraseinu? Why the event which took place at Har Sinai on 6 Sivan 2448 is called Matan Torah? What Torah was given on Shavuos?
    – DonielF
    May 12, 2019 at 1:59
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    I think your question could use some "cleaning", per @DonielF's questions. But, overall, I gather you wonder about what was actually given at Sinai, not as much the actual date. But, to address the 2nd to last par. and the date, we do know what date that was within a date or two. The Torah does specifically state (Shemot Ch. 19, I believe) that they arrived at Sinai at 1 Sivan (or 1st day of 3rd month.) Then there were, I think 2 days of Moshe going up and down the mountain to relay messages to / from Bnai Yisrael, and either 2 or 3 days of preparation. So final date is 6 or 7 Sivan.
    – DanF
    May 12, 2019 at 2:36
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    You assume Torah = 5 books of Moses. No one claimed they received that, especially since it contains things that hadn't happened yet. It means they received the laws of the Torah. Rashi in mishpatim brings that the 613 mitzvos are contained in the 10 commandments. You can say then that in essence when they received the 10 they received the whole Torah.
    – robev
    May 12, 2019 at 17:13
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    @robev I don't know what to reply, if all the Torah was contained within the Decalogue - why the 5 Books, and how come people didn't know the laws if they received everything on Mt Sinai?
    – Al Berko
    May 12, 2019 at 20:26
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    The term "Torah", of course, is a rather loosely applied term. In speech, when someone says, "I'm learning Torah" it doesn't necessarily mean the 1st Five Books. Thus, perhaps within the scope of this question, maybe we should focus on what exactly was delivered during the entire period that they were at Sinai (which was quite some time) and not just the day that the Decalogue was given. I.e., I don't think the terminology is as much your concern in this question. If I'm off, please clarify. So, no, at Sinai they didn't just get the Decalogue as I gather.
    – DanF
    May 12, 2019 at 22:35