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When one is in need of davening with the chazon, when is the latest you can join him in his repetition of the amidah? Sources if possible.

1

See SA OC 109.1

  1. הנכנס לבית הכנסת ומצא צבור מתפללין אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור קודם שיגיע שליח ציבור לקדושה או לקדיש יתפלל והוא הדין אמן דהאל הקדוש ושומע תפלה דינן כקדיש וקדושה (תוספות והרא"ש ומרדכי פרק מי שמתו ותרומת הדשן סימן י"א). One who has just entered the synagogue he find that the congregation are praying. If he is able to begin and end before the Shats reach Kedusha, or Kaddish (the kaddish after the Amida, e.g. after the Amida of tefilat Arvit. Not the end of the kaddish but the"Amen yehe sheme Rabba. If he finished the tefila after the starting part of the kaddish, he can listen but not answering. Magen Avraham), he must to pray. Amen of "Hakel Hakadosh", or of "Shomea Tefila", are equivalent to Kaddish or Kedusha.

  2. ואם לאו אל יתפלל אם אין השעה עוברת If he is not able to pray so fast, and there is time up to the end of Tefila Time, he needs to wait before his tefila.

  3. ואם נכנס אחר קדושה אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור קודם שיגיע שליח ציבור למודים יתפלל If he entered after the Kedusha, if he he is able to begin and end before the Shats reached "Modim", he must to pray (the Amida)

  4. ואם לאו אל יתפלל והוא הדין אם יכול להגיע למודים או לאחת מהברכות ששוחים בהם כשיגיע שליח צבור למודים יתפלל But if he is not able to do so, he needs to wait before the begining of his Amida. He needs also to pray if he can reach with the tsibbur for Modim or one of the berachot that need prosternation

  5. ואם צריך להתחיל כדי לסמוך גאולה לתפילה ונזדמן לו שמגיע שליח ציבור למודים כשהוא באחת מהברכות (באמצעה) ישחה עמו If he needs to start the Amida because he already said Gaal Israel, when the Shats prosterns, he needs also to prostern despite he is in an other Beracha

  6. אבל אם הוא בתחלתה או בסופה לא ישחה שאין שוחין בתחלת ברכה או בסופה אלא באבות ובהודאה but only if he is at the middle of one beracha, but not at the beginning and not at the end, because it's prohibited.

Magen Avraham says that if he can start before modim, and answer to the kaddish, it's better than starting after modim, so, answering modim but not answering kaddish. Because participation to Amen yehe sheme Rabba is greater than participation to modim. This rule is applicable when the limit time of tefila will be missed if he starts to pray the Amida after the kaddish.

If he can wait and listening the tefila but when he will pray without the presence of the congregation (at least 10 men), it's not good, It's better to pray alone and not to listen nothing but his prayer is said in the presence of the congregation.

If he has the choice to answer to modim or to kedusha, kedusha is greater. Additionally he can prostern at the time of modim even if he is on the middle of the Amida.

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