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The second day of Yom Tov outside of Israel was caused either by the length of time it took messengers to get to far away communities and tell them when the new month was declared or the confusion because variant sects co-opted the fire-message system to create a false impression about the dates (I don't have sources for these but they are what I have read).

Hillel II codified his calendar somewhere in the early 4th century (though I also read that parts of the calendar were not instituted for another 500 years).

When was the practice of the second day of Y"T for Chu"L instituted and for how long was there any confusion before it was established (and after, before Hillel's calendar was adopted to resolve any confusion)?

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