Would sources consider the following as a mitzvah, sin or neither: If one continues to rebuke their friend for breaking shabbat and not following the Torah, and it causes not exactly arguments, but disagreements where the non religious person gets very mad and writes against the religion online?

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The Kitzur Shulchan Aruch writes that if it seems like the sinner won't listen then it is forbidden to rebuke him:

בְּמֶה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים כְּשֶׁהוּא מְדַמֶּה שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע לוֹ. אֲבָל אִם יוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמַע לוֹ, אָסוּר לְהוֹכִיחוֹ, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אִילְעָא מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּצְוָה עַל אָדָם לוֹמַר דָּבָר הַנִּשְׁמָע כָּךְ מִצְוָה עַל אָדָם, שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִשְׁמָע. רַבִּי אַבָּא אוֹמֵר חוֹבָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אַל תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן יִשְׂנָאֶךָ, הוֹכַח לֶחָכָם וְיֶאֶהָבֶךָ. (יבמות דף ס"ה ע"ב) (אוֹרַח חַיִּים סִימָן תר"ח)‏

This applies only in a case when you believe that the sinner will listen to you, but when you know that he will not pay attention to your words, then you are forbidden to admonish him. For Rabbi Ila'a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Rabbi Shimon, "Just as it is a mitzvah for a person to say something that will be heeded, so it is a mitzvah to refrain from saying something that will not be heeded." Rabbi Abba says, "It is his duty" [to refrain from saying anything that will not be taken under consideration]. for it is said: "Do not admonish a scorner lest he hate you; reprove a wise man and he will love you."(Sefaria)

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