For many daily activities, the time frame for completion is dependent on the proportional hours (sha'ot zmaniot). But is there an extension of those hours to proportional minutes and seconds which would then be applicable in cases where the time frame is similarly delineated?
Some quick examples -- if we light candles 18 minutes before shkiah, what kind of minutes would those be?
When announcing the new moon, do we set the molad based on proportional hours, minutes and chalakim?
When baking (or, later, eating) matzah, would the length of the minutes be proportional and different depending on how early or late in the solar year Pesach falls?
When waiting after meat, would I wait 6 shorter hours in the winter (though this one, I know, is less likely because the initial discussions weren't about hours but about meals -- but if I wait less time between meals in the winter so I can eat before it gets too dark...)
To what extent to we use proportional timing and why are there any limitations to its applicability?